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Immigrants And Urbanization

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1 Immigrants And Urbanization
Chapter 15 Immigrants And Urbanization

2 From the end of the Civil War until the beginning of the 20th Century, the size of US cities increased rapidly; this is known as urban growth. In the West, new towns grew out of nothing as RR and settlements took hold. In the East, established cities grew in population due to industrialization and the jobs it created.

3 Millions of immigrants came to the U. S
Millions of immigrants came to the U.S. during the 19th and 20th Centuries in search of a better life. Some hoped to escape famine, land shortages, or religious/political persecution. Others only sought to temporarily earn money and return to their homelands.


5 Immigrants came from Europe, China, Japan, West Indies, and Mexico.
Europeans arrived at the East coast: Before 1890-came from Northern and Western Europe After came from Southern and Eastern Europe Chinese and Japanese arrived at the West coast in small numbers, which were limited by the gov’t.






11 Most immigrants traveled via steamship to the U.S.
The journey could take several weeks. Many immigrants were put into crowded, filthy quarters and hoped to survive the passage without sickness/disease. Upon arrival, many immigrants faced the possibility of being sent back home.

12 The process could take 5+ hours.
When arriving at the East coast, immigrants landed at Ellis Island in NY Harbor. Ellis Island was opened in 1892 as a reception center for the many new immigrants coming to the US The process could take 5+ hours. Immigrants had to pass a physical exam, interview with a gov’t inspector, and prove their mental abilities.


14 Those arriving at the West coast entered at Angel Island in San Francisco Bay.
Immigrants (mostly Chinese) faced harsher questioning and a long stay in bad conditions.


16 Once admitted to the country immigrants faced the obstacles of finding a place to live, finding work, and learning the language. Many found people of common origins and formed communities together. They often kept the culture of their home country alive by building cultural stores, churches, and other groups.

17 Native-born Americans tended to think of the U. S
Native-born Americans tended to think of the U.S. as a melting pot-mixture of people and cultures who blended together and abandoned native ways for American ways.


19 This encouraged the ideas of nativism-favoring native-born citizens over immigrants.
Nativists believed certain races were inferior and objected to their religious and social beliefs. The American Protective Association restricted the rights of Catholics and Jews. The Immigration Restriction League influenced Congress to require a literacy test for immigrants.

20 Congress also passed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 to ban Chinese immigration. It stayed in effect until 1943. Only students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and gov’t officials were allowed.


22 Looking Backward “Looking Backward” A Puck cartoon from 1893 with sentiments 180 degrees opposite from “The Unrestricted Dumping Ground” Judge cartoon from ten years later. This one shows an immigrant stepping off the ship, only to be greeted by the forbidding figures, in their bourgeois splendor, telling him to go back where he came from. The kicker, though, is in the shadows lurking behind those forbidding figures: It’s the representation of their own ragged selves, and their ancestors, at the time of their own arrival! The caption nicely summarizes the point: “They would close to the new-comer the bridge that carried them and their fathers over.”


24 During the 19th and 20th Centuries industrialization would lead to urbanization-rapid growth of cities, especially in the Northeast and Midwest. Because of immigration, the Americanization movement was created to assimilate people of different cultures into the dominant culture.




28 This movement was sponsored by gov’t officials, schools, and volunteer groups who taught about citizenship, English, History, social etiquette, and American culture. As populations increased, so did the problems faced by city gov’ts: Housing (tenement homes) Transportation (mass transit-electric trolleys) Water Sanitation Crime Fires


30 Some reformers built settlement houses or community centers.
All of these problems led to the Social Gospel Movement which encouraged helping the urban poor. Some reformers built settlement houses or community centers. Jane Addams opened the Hull House in Chicago. It not only helped the urban poor, but served as a launching pad for investigations into the political, economic, and social conditions in the city. These centers provided assistance for the poor and educated people about urban problems.



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