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Immigrants and Urbanization

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Presentation on theme: "Immigrants and Urbanization"— Presentation transcript:

1 Immigrants and Urbanization

2 The New Immigrants Ellis Island: inspection station for immigrants on east coast Angel Island: Inspection station for immigrants on west coast Melting Pot: mixture of different cultures Nativism: favoritism towards native-born Americans Chinese Exclusion Act: Act that limited Chinese Immigration Gentlemen’s Agreement: Limited Japanese emigration to the U.S.

3 Through the “Golden Door”
Between , about 20 million Europeans immigrated to the US Some came to escape religious persecution, improve economic situation, get greater freedom, escape political turmoil Immigrants also came from Asia, Caribbean, and Mexico

4 Life in the New Land Many immigrants traveled to US on steamships in cramped, unsanitary spaces European immigrants entered through Ellis Island, Asian immigrants entered through Angel Island Cultural barriers made life difficult for immigrants Many immigrants settled in communities with immigrants from the same country

5 Immigration Restrictions
America described as a melting pot even though some immigrants refused to give up culture and become part of American society Some Americans were prejudiced against immigrants and demanded restrictions on immigration The Chinese exclusion Act and Gentleman’s agreement were passed to limit Asian immigration, Americans blamed them for taking too many jobs

6 The Challenges of Urbanization
Urbanization: growth of cities Americanization movement: program to teach American culture to immigrants Tenement: multifamily urban dwelling Mass transit: system to transport large numbers of people on fixed routes Social Gospel Movement: Movement that urged people to help the poor Settlement house: community center that addressed problems in slum neighborhoods Jane Addams: social reformer that helped the poor

7 Urban Opportunities Many new immigrants settled in cities in early 1900’s led to rapid urbanization Newcomers learned about their new country through the Americanization Movement Farmers also moved to cities, many of which were African Americans looking to escape hardship and racial violence, many found prejudice and low wages in the North

8 Urban Problems Urbanization created problems such as housing, transportation, safe drinking water, sanitation, crime, and fires

9 Reformers Mobilize The Social Gospel Movement led many Americans to help the poor and move towards reform Settlement houses were formed to help immigrants make the transition of moving to the US Jane Addams established Hull House to help the poor of Chicago

10 Politics of the Gilded Age
Political Machine: group that controlled a political party Graft: illegal use of political influence for personal gain Boss Tweed: Head of New York City’s powerful Democratic political machine Patronage: giving gov’t jobs to friends Civil service: gov’t administration

11 6. Rutherford B. Hayes, James Garfield, Chester Arthur: 19-21st presidents of US that promoted reform in politics 7. Pendleton Civil Service Act: implemented merit system in civil service hiring system 8. Grover Cleveland: 22nd and 24th Pres. That promoted reform 9. Benjamin Harrison: 23rd Pres. Raised tariffs against wishes of the people

12 Emergence of Political Machines
During 1800’s many cities were dominated by political machines that offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for support City Bosses were politicians that headed the political machine By controlling the cities’ finances and by solving problems for voters, bosses won loyalty and influence

13 Municipal Graft and Scandal
Many city bosses became corrupt, became rich through graft, gained votes illegally, and took kickbacks in city funded projects Boss Tweed and Tamany Hall were infamous City Boss and machine in New York City Thomas Nast drew political cartoons depicting the corrupt Boss Tweed which would eventually lead to Tweed’s arrest in France

14 Civil Service Reform The Government eventually agreed to pass the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 to get rid of patronage and award people jobs based on merit instead of favoritism

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