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Immigration and Urbanization

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Presentation on theme: "Immigration and Urbanization"— Presentation transcript:

1 Immigration and Urbanization
The influence of immigration and rapid urbanization on America

2 Immigration on the Rise
From million immigrants arrived in the U.S. Immigration on the Rise Pull Factors Push Factors American political and economic freedoms Opportunity to own land Advertisements by RR companies and other industries for workers Wars Famine Religious persecution Overpopulation

3 Often cost a life’s savings
Often sent only one or two family members to US – hope to bring all later Most immigrants traveled in “steerage” Above deck (exposed to rain, wind, overwash) Lowest deck of ship (no fresh air, no toilets, disease)

4 The “New Immigrants” Originated from Southern and Eastern Europe
Many were Catholic or Jewish Most spoke no English Nativism: Prejudice and discrimination towards immigrants

5 1890 – Congress created an immigration station at ELLIS ISLAND for the East Coast
By 1900 – 6 million immigrants had passed through ELLIS ISLAND Dominant immigration station on West Coast – ANGEL ISLAND

6 Processing Immigrants
a humiliating and dehumanizing inspection process Immigration officials had the power to send immigrants back Inspectors quickly recorded information – including names which were often changed or “Americanized”

7 Chinese Immigrants – Part of New Immigration
Chinese immigrants typically arrived in California (Angel Island) 320, – 1882 (Many ended up working for very low wages on the construction of first transcontinental railroad) Chinese Exclusion Act passed in 1882 severely limited Chinese immigration to US Lived primarily in Chinatowns – were encouraged to not “melt” into American culture

8 Allowed immigrants to maintain native culture
Photo from “Little Italy” in NY Ethnic Communities in major cities – “Little Italy” in NY and “Chinatown” in San Francisco are the best examples Allowed immigrants to maintain native culture Resisted attempts to “Americanize”

9 Urbanization Rapid growth of cities as a result of immigration and migration of farmers who were seeking jobs Changing nature of cities reflective of industrialization of America Skyscrapers, elevators allowed cities to grow upwards (rather than outwards) Streetcars, subways, elevated railroads, electric trolleys (allowed for transportation in crowded cities) Steel suspension bridges (allowed for growth of roads and railroads in cities) Establishment of “public cities” (in which city government took responsibility for protection (police, fire) as well as sanitation and health)

10 “Five Cents a Spot” Immigrants and the poor in cities typically lived in “tenements” Overcrowded and unsanitary High infant mortality rates Accidental and premature deaths common

11 Social Reformers Address Needs of Immigrants and Cities
Social Gospel Movement – social justice for the poor and salvation through service to poor Settlement House Movement- construction of community centers in cities (HULL HOUSE) Administered by college-educated, middle class women Provided education from kindergarten to adult education Provided health care Over 400 built in late 19th century

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