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1 Famous Psychology Experiments. 2 Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning Experiments on dogs Smarty Pants: Nobel Prize - 1904 Dog.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Famous Psychology Experiments. 2 Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning Experiments on dogs Smarty Pants: Nobel Prize - 1904 Dog."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Famous Psychology Experiments

2 2 Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning Experiments on dogs Smarty Pants: Nobel Prize - 1904 Dog

3 3 Classical Conditioning and Pavlov’s Dogs: Hypothesis Observations: Dogs salivate when food is placed in their mouths Dogs salivate at mere sight of food Hypothesis: Dogs can be trained, or conditioned, to salivate when exposed to an external (neutral) stimulus

4 4 Classical Conditioning Components CS-Conditioned Stimulus –Learned trigger (initially neutral) UCS- Unconditioned Stimulus –Automatically triggers a response UCR- Unconditioned Response –Naturally occurring response CR- Conditioned Response –Learned response

5 5 Pavlov’s Methodology and Results Present external (neutral) stimulus (bell) immediately before giving food. Order is important Results: After a few trials, the dog salivates upon hearing the bell Works with other stimuli as well

6 6 Pavlov’s Conclusions Unconditioned Response (UCR) Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Conditioned Response (CR) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) because of

7 7 Continuing Pavlov’s Experiment Acquisition –Learning the pairing CS+ UCS –Making the association Extinction –Represses CR (not eliminated) Spontaneous Recovery –After extinction, time passes, recurring of the CR w/o UCS Generalization –CR to stimuli that are similar Discrimination –CR to a particular stimulus only Other Aspects of Classical Conditioning

8 8 John Watson and Rosalie Rayner: Hypothesis, Methodology, Results After a few tries, Albert was afraid of the rat += Conditioned fear into an infant Presented a rat immediately followed by a loud noise, startling the baby Albert generalized his fears to other furry objects

9 9 Mary Cover Jones Colleague of Watson Deconditioned 3-year-old Peter from his fears by gradually moving a rabbit (and other things) closer to him while he was eating DAY 1 DAY 3 DAY 2

10 10 B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning Classical conditioning involves an automatic response to a stimulus Operant conditioning involves learning how to control one’s response to elicit a reward or avoid a punishment

11 11 The “Skinner Box”: Skinner’s Hypothesis, Methodology, and Results Rats placed in “Skinner boxes” Shaped to get closer and closer to the bar in order to receive food Eventually required to press the bar to receive food Food is a reinforcer

12 12 Basic Types of Reinforcement Reinforcer: any event that increases or strengthens a behavior it follows. Primary Reinforcer: innately satisfying (not learned, i.e. food) Secondary Reinforcer: power through association with primary reinforcers (learned, i.e. good grades) Positive Reinforcement: strengthens a response by presenting a stimulus after a response (Praise, money) Pass Out Handout!

13 13 Negative Reinforcement and Punishment Negative reinforcement: Removing an unpleasant stimulus Punishment 1. Unpleasant stimulus 2. Removal of unpleasant stimulus = = 1. Introducing an unpleasant stimulus 2. Withholding a pleasant stimulus

14 14 Law of Effect-Thorndike Reinforced behaviors are strengthened Punished behaviors are decreased

15 15 Rates and Types of Reinforcement: Additional Experiments Fixed-ratio: after a fixed number of responses reinforcement is given. (sales) Produces high response rate Variable-ratio: after an unpredictable number of responses reinforcement is given (gambling) Produces high response rate Fixed-interval: after a fixed amount of time reinforcement is given. (mail) Variable-interval: after an unpredictable amount of time reinforcement is given (e- mail) Predictability Matters

16 16 Skinner’s Importance Education: programmed instruction Work ParentingPersonal goals

17 17 Albert Bandura: Hypothesis Believed we learn through observation and imitation Hypothesized that children would imitate aggressive behavior they observed =

18 18 Bandura’s Methodology Children watched films of adults beating Bobo dolls Three groups: aggression-rewarded, aggression-punished, no consequences Children went into rooms with toys that they were told not to play with

19 19 Bandura’s Results Children in the aggression-punished group expressed the fewest aggressive behaviors toward the Bobo dolls Children in the other two groups expressed an equal number of aggressive behaviors and were more aggressive than children in the aggression-punished group EFFECT OF OBSERVED CONSEQUENCE ON IMITATIVE BEHAVIOR

20 20 Bandura’s Experiment, continued Children promised rewards for imitating the adult in the film Now, all three groups were equally aggressive Children had learned the aggressive behavior from the film, but those who saw the adults being punished were less likely to act aggressively Viewing aggressive behavior Rewards for imitationAggressive behavior + =

21 21 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Relates to effects of violence and other images on TV and in the movies Children imitate good and neutral behaviors as well as bad ones

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