2 LEARNING - KEY POINTS What is learning? How do we learn? classical conditioningoperant conditioningobservational learninginsight learningWhat are some “real world” examples of each type of learning?
3 What is learning?A relatively permanent change in behavior or behavioral potential as a result of practice or experience
4 Pavlov’s Experiment Ivan Pavlov - Russian physiologist, late 1800’s Experiment with saliva and digestion of dogsIncidence of salivation hard to control - what was happening?
5 Elements of Pavlov’s Experiment The reflexive, unlearned relationship existed between the food (UCS) and salivation (UCR)Dog associated other stimuli with food- sight of food, food dish, person feeding dog.Neutral stimulus became conditioned stimulus (CS)
6 Pavlov (cont.)After many pairings of the CS with the UCS, the reflexive response (UCR) occurred only in the presence of the CSWhen the UCR occurs only in the presence of the CS, it becomes a conditioned response (CR)
7 Examples of UCS-UCR Loud sound (UCS) triggers startle response (UCR) Puff of air (UCS) triggers eye blinkPresence of food (UCS) triggers salivation
8 Classical Conditioning Built on the relationship between and unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned responseClassical conditioning occurs when an association is made between a previously neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus
9 Important TermsUnconditioned stimulus - any stimulus that causes a reflex or emotional response without any learning or conditioning requiredUnconditioned response - the reflex response triggered by a stimulus w/o any learning required
10 More Terms!Conditioned Stimulus (CS) - a previously neutral stimulus that, through conditioning now causes a classically conditioned responseConditioned Response (CR) - a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus that has been associated with the stimulus through repeated pairings
11 Classical Conditioning of Emotional Responses John Watson and Rosalie Raynor demonstrated how fear could be conditioned (1920)“Little Albert” - baby was taught to fear white ratUCS (noise)- UCR (startle response)UCS (noise) was paired with neutral stimulus (rat)CR (startle response) occurred in the presence of rat (CS)
12 Principles of Classical Conditioning Stimulus generalization - the occurrence of a learned response not only to the original stimuli, but also to other similar stimuliStimulus discrimination - the occurrence of a learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other similar stimuli
13 Principles (cont.)Extinction - a behavior is extinct when the response rate decreases or the person or animal no longer responds to the stimuliSpontaneous recovery - the reappearance of a previously extinguished behavior after a period of time w/o exposure to the CS
14 Real World Examples of Classical Conditioning Use of sex or other stimuli in advertising (Doritos commercial)CR is an emotional reaction to previously neutral stimuli (Dr. Burr and the sad story of Aramis cologne)PhobiasMedical TreatmentsPrejudice
15 OPERANT CONDITIONINGLearning is based on the consequences following behaviorAssociation is made between a behavior and its consequencesBehavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer and weakened if followed by a punisherBehavior is active and voluntary
16 Major BehavioristsThorndike: The Law of Effect: The frequency of the behavior is modified by its consequencesB.F. Skinner: “to understand behavior, we must look at environmental stimuli and responses”.
17 ReinforcementAny action or event that increases the probability that a response will be repeatedDefined only by its effect on the behaviorPossible reinforcers include money, food, attention, praise, stickers
18 PunishmentAny action or event that decreases the likelihood that a response will be repeatedLike reinforcement, defined only by its measurable effect on the behaviorPossible punishers include physical punishment, reprimands, loss of privilege
19 Side Effects of Punishment Passive aggressivenessIncreased aggressionAvoidance behaviorModelingOnly temporary suppression of behaviorLearned helplessness
20 OPERANT CONDITIONING IN REAL LIFE Prejudice - can be learned through classical and operant conditioning (demeaning others can be reinforced by approval or attention), generalize one experience to a group of peopleBiofeedback - learn to control involuntary bodily processes with information about consequencesSuperstition - random behaviors are reinforced and thus strengthened
21 Cognitive and Social Learning Insight learning - Kohler and the chimps - the “AHA” experience.Latent learning - Tolman study of the rats in the maze: latent learning occurs in the absence of a reward and remains hidden until there is some incentive to demonstrate it
22 Observational Learning Albert Bandura and the BoBo doll study (1963)Four processes needed for observational learning to take placeAttentionRetentionReproductionReinforcement