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A.P. Psychology Modules 20-22

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1 A.P. Psychology Modules 20-22
Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning & Observational Learning

2 Learning & Association
relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Associative Learning learning that two events occur together

3 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
We learn to associate two stimuli

4 Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning organism comes to associate two stimuli

5 Pavlov’s Classic Experiment
Before Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCR (salivation) No salivation During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) CS (tone) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCR (salivation) CR (salivation)

6 Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response Unconditioned Response (UCR) unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus

7 Classical Conditioning
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned Response (CR) learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus

8 Classical Conditioning
Acquisition the initial stage in classical conditioning Extinction diminishing of a CR Spontaneous Recovery reappearance of an extinguished CR Generalization tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses Discrimination the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS

9 Behaviorism & Classical Conditioning
John B. Watson viewed psychology as objective science recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes “Baby Albert” experiment

10 Classical Conditioning

11 Operant Conditioning Law of Effect Operant Conditioning E.L. Thorndike
behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely Operant Conditioning behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment

12 Operant Conditioning Operant Behavior Respondent Behavior
operates (acts) on environment produces consequences Respondent Behavior occurs as an automatic response to stimulus behavior learned through classical conditioning

13 Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner ( ) Skinner's Experiments

14 Operant Chamber Skinner Box
chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer contains devices to record responses

15 Operant Conditioning Reinforcer Shaping
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal

16 Operant Conditioning

17 Principles/Schedules of Reinforcement
Primary Reinforcer innately reinforcing stimulus Conditioned Reinforcer stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer secondary reinforcer Continuous Reinforcement reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time

18 Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed Ratio (FR) reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses faster you respond the more rewards you get Variable Ratio (VR) reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses Fixed Interval (FI) reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed Variable Interval (VI) reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals produces slow steady responding

19 Punishment Punishment
aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows powerful controller of unwanted behavior

20 Punishment

21 Cognition & Operant Conditioning
Cognitive Map mental representation of the layout of one’s environment Latent Learning learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it Overjustification Effect the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do

22 Cognition & Operant Conditioning
Intrinsic Motivation desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective Extrinsic Motivation desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments

23 Classical vs. Operant Conditioning

24 Observational Learning
learning by observing others Modeling process of observing and imitating a specific behavior Mirror Neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so

25 Observational Learning
Albert Bandura Bobo doll Bandura's Experiment

26 Observational Learning
Prosocial Behavior positive, constructive, helpful behavior opposite of antisocial behavior

27 TV & Observational Learning

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