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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY"— Presentation transcript:



3 Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience

4 Classical Conditioning
What is learning? How do we learn to form associations between stimuli and responses?

5 What is Classical Conditioning?
A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response Ivan Pavlov

6 What is Classical Conditioning?
Neutral stimulus Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Unconditioned response (UCR) Conditioned stimulus (CS) Conditioned response (CR) Figure 1 of Chapter 5

7 How Do Conditioning Principles Apply to Human Behavior?
“Little Albert” John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner (1920) Phobias

8 Extinction of a Conditioned Response
Occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears Spontaneous Recovery Reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest and with no further conditioning

9 Extinction of a Conditioned Response
Acquisition, Extinction, & Spontaneous Recovery in Classical Conditioning Figure 2 of Chapter 5

10 Generalization and Discrimination
Stimulus Generalization Occurs when a conditioned response follows a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus Stimulus Discrimination Occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another such that one evokes a conditioned response but the other does not

11 Operant Conditioning What is the role of reward and punishment in learning? What are some practical methods for bringing about behavior change—both in ourselves and in others?

12 Operant Conditioning Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences

13 How Operant Conditioning Works
Reinforcement A process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated Reinforcer Primary Secondary

14 How Operant Conditioning Works
Positive Reinforcers Stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a preceding response Negative Reinforcers Unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated

15 How Operant Conditioning Works
Punishment Stimulus that decreases the probability that a prior behavior will occur again Positive punishment Adding something Negative punishment Removing something

16 How Operant Conditioning Works
Reinforcement and Punishment Figure 3 of Chapter 5

17 Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous reinforcement schedule Reinforced every time it occurs Partial (intermittent) reinforcement schedule Reinforced some but not all of the time

18 Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed-Ratio Schedule Reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses. Variable-Ratio Schedule Occurs after a varying number of responses Figure 4 of Chapter 5

19 Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed-Interval Schedule Provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed Overall rates of response are relatively low. Variable-Interval Schedule The time between reinforcements varies based on an average rather than being fixed.

20 Discrimination and Generalization in Operant Conditioning
Stimulus control training Behavior is reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus, but not in its absence. Discriminative stimulus Signals the likelihood that reinforcement will follow a response

21 Shaping: Reinforcing What Doesn’t Come Naturally
Process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior Animal training Complex human skills

22 Comparing Classical and Operant Conditioning
Figure 5 of Chapter 5

23 Behavior Analysis and Behavior Modification
Techniques Identify goals and target behaviors Design a data-recording system and record preliminary data Select a behavior-change strategy Implement the program Keep careful records after the program is implemented Evaluate and alter the ongoing program

24 Cognitive Approaches to Learning
Can all learning be explained by operant and classical conditioning processes? What is the role of cognition and thought in learning?

25 Cognitive Learning Theory
An approach that states that learning is best understood in terms of thought processes, or cognitions People develop an expectation that they will receive a reinforcer after making a response.

26 Latent Learning New behavior is learned but not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it. Learning occurs without reinforcement.

27 Observational Learning: Learning Through Imitation
Learning by watching the behavior of another person, or model The social cognitive approach to learning Albert Bandura

28 Violence in Television and Video Games: Does the Media’s Message Matter?
Recent research supports the claim that watching high levels of media violence makes viewers more susceptible to acting aggressively.

29 Does Culture Influence How We Learn?
Relational learning style People master material best through exposure to a full unit or phenomenon. Analytical learning style People master material best when they can carry out an initial analysis of the principles and components underlying a phenomenon or situation.

30 Does Culture Influence How We Learn?
Analytical versus Relational Approaches to Learning Figure 7 of Chapter 5


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