3 LearningA relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience
4 Classical Conditioning What is learning?How do we learn to form associations between stimuli and responses?
5 What is Classical Conditioning? A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that responseIvan Pavlov
6 What is Classical Conditioning? Neutral stimulusUnconditioned stimulus (UCS)Unconditioned response (UCR)Conditioned stimulus (CS)Conditioned response(CR)Figure 1 of Chapter 5
7 How Do Conditioning Principles Apply to Human Behavior? “Little Albert”John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner (1920)Phobias
8 Extinction of a Conditioned Response Occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappearsSpontaneous RecoveryReemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest and with no further conditioning
9 Extinction of a Conditioned Response Acquisition, Extinction, & SpontaneousRecovery in Classical ConditioningFigure 2 of Chapter 5
10 Generalization and Discrimination Stimulus GeneralizationOccurs when a conditioned response follows a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulusStimulus DiscriminationOccurs if two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another such that one evokes a conditioned response but the other does not
11 Operant ConditioningWhat is the role of reward and punishment in learning?What are some practical methods for bringing about behavior change—both in ourselves and in others?
12 Operant ConditioningLearning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences
13 How Operant Conditioning Works ReinforcementA process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeatedReinforcerPrimarySecondary
14 How Operant Conditioning Works Positive ReinforcersStimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a preceding responseNegative ReinforcersUnpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated
15 How Operant Conditioning Works PunishmentStimulus that decreases the probability that a prior behavior will occur againPositive punishmentAdding somethingNegative punishmentRemoving something
16 How Operant Conditioning Works Reinforcement and PunishmentFigure 3 of Chapter 5
17 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement scheduleReinforced every time it occursPartial (intermittent) reinforcement scheduleReinforced some but not all of the time
18 Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed-Ratio ScheduleReinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses.Variable-Ratio ScheduleOccurs after a varying number of responsesFigure 4 of Chapter 5
19 Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed-Interval ScheduleProvides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsedOverall rates of response are relatively low.Variable-Interval ScheduleThe time between reinforcements varies based on an average rather than being fixed.
20 Discrimination and Generalization in Operant Conditioning Stimulus control trainingBehavior is reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus, but not in its absence.Discriminative stimulusSignals the likelihood that reinforcement will follow a response
21 Shaping: Reinforcing What Doesn’t Come Naturally Process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviorAnimal trainingComplex human skills
22 Comparing Classical and Operant Conditioning Figure 5 of Chapter 5
23 Behavior Analysis and Behavior Modification TechniquesIdentify goals and target behaviorsDesign a data-recording system and record preliminary dataSelect a behavior-change strategyImplement the programKeep careful records after the program is implementedEvaluate and alter the ongoing program
24 Cognitive Approaches to Learning Can all learning be explained by operant and classical conditioning processes?What is the role of cognition and thought in learning?
25 Cognitive Learning Theory An approach that states that learning is best understood in terms of thought processes, or cognitionsPeople develop an expectation that they will receive a reinforcer after making a response.
26 Latent LearningNew behavior is learned but not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it.Learning occurs without reinforcement.
27 Observational Learning: Learning Through Imitation Learning by watching the behavior of another person, or modelThe social cognitive approach to learningAlbert Bandura
28 Violence in Television and Video Games: Does the Media’s Message Matter? Recent research supports the claim that watching high levels of media violence makes viewers more susceptible to acting aggressively.
29 Does Culture Influence How We Learn? Relational learning stylePeople master material best through exposure to a full unit or phenomenon.Analytical learning stylePeople master material best when they can carry out an initial analysis of the principles and components underlying a phenomenon or situation.
30 Does Culture Influence How We Learn? Analytical versus Relational Approaches to LearningFigure 7 of Chapter 5