2 Learning= a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience.Relatively Permanent: Learning must have staying power. Real learning is not temporary.Change in organisms behavior: We know learning has occurred when behavior has changed.Due to experience: Learning results from experience, either directly or indirectly.
3 Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning How Do We Learn?Classical ConditioningOperant ConditioningObservational Learning
4 Classical Conditioning: What is Classical Conditioning and How did Pavlov’s work influence Behaviorism?Read pagesClassical Conditioning:a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.IVAN PAVLOV
5 Parts of Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s ExperimentsParts of Classical ConditioningUnconditioned stimulus (US) in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally – naturally and automatically – triggers a response.Unconditioned response (UR) in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
6 Pavlov’s ExperimentsConditioned stimulus (CS) in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (CS), comes to trigger a conditioned response.Conditioned response (CR) in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
7 Pavlov’s ExperimentsThe office Conditioning Pavlov Video
8 Pavlov’s Experiments Acquisition, Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery The stronger the CS and US, the faster the Acquisitions. If CS is alone, then the CR becomes extinct but can be spontaneously recovered.
9 Pavlov’s ExperimentsGeneralization: the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.Discrimination: in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus“ I don’t care if she’s a tape dispenser. I love her!
11 Pavlov’s Legacy Read pages : 226-227 Classical conditioning applies to other organismsShowed how to study a topic scientificallyGreatly Influenced the school of Behaviorism and John Watson’s “Baby Albert” experimentLittle Albert Experiment
12 Operant Conditioning What is Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning What is Operant Conditioning? And how does it differ from Classical Conditioning? HANDOUT 6-4
13 Operant Conditioning What is Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning What is Operant Conditioning? And how does it differ from Classical Conditioning?* Classical Conditioning forms associations between stimuli and involves Respondent Behavior, or actions that are automatic responses to stimuli. No control over either the stimuli or the response.Operant Conditioning, organisms associate their OWN actions with CONSEQUENCES. Behavior OPERATES on the environment to PRODUCE rewarding or punishing stimuli is called OPERANT BEHAVIOR.We can distinguish between the two by asking: “ Is the organism learning associations between events it does not control, or is it learning association between its behavior and resulting events. “
14 B.F. Skinner’s Experiments Edward Thorndike’s Law of Effect – Rewarded behavior is likely to recur.B.F. Skinner – Modern Behaviorisms most influential psychologist.Developed Behavioral technologyDeveloped Methods of Behavior control
15 B.F. Skinner’s Experiments Read page 229 Operant Chamber (Skinner Box)Skinner used SHAPING: a procedure in which reinforcers, such as food, gradually guide an animals actions towards a desired behavior.
16 Skinner’s Experiments Types of Reinforcers Positive reinforcementNegative reinforcement (is NOT PUNISHMENT)Is this Positive or Negative Reinforcement?Write 3 more examples for each type of reinforcement, HANDOUT 6-6
17 Skinner’s Experiments Types of Reinforcers Operant Conditioning Video Primary reinforcer – unlearned, innately satisfying, ex - foodConditioned reinforcerSecondary reinforcer – get their power through learned association with primary reinforcers, ex – money to buy food.Immediate vs delayed reinforcers
18 Skinner’s Experiments Reinforcement Schedules Continuous reinforcement – reinforce every time.Partial (intermittent) reinforcement – reinforce on a scheduleSchedulesFixed-ratio schedule – Set Number of responsesVariable-ratio schedule – Unpredictable number of responsesFixed-interval schedule – Fixed TIME periodVariable-interval schedule - Varying TIME period
21 Skinner’s Experiments Punishment Negatives of using punishmentPunished behavior is suppressed not forgottenPunishment teaches discriminationPunishment can teach fearPhysical punishment may increase aggressionHANDOUT 6-7
22 Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning Use Compare and Contrast Chart Similarities between classical and operant conditioningDifferences between classical and operant conditioning