1 The Importance of Nutrition Nutrition is the process by which your body takes in and uses foodNutrients are substances in food that your body needs to grow, to repair itself, and to supply energyCalories are units of heat used to measure the energy your body uses and the energy it receives from food
2 Hunger vs. Appetite Hunger Appetite The natural physical drive to eat Prompted by the body’s need for foodYou may feel tired or lightheaded when you are hungryAppetiteThe psychological desire for foodThe smell of fresh cookies tempts you, even if you are full
3 Food and the Environment How do the following influence what you eat?Family and CultureFriendsTime and MoneyAdvertising
4 Giving Your Body What It Needs Everything you eat contains nutrients. Your body uses nutrients in many ways:As an energy sourceTo heal, and build and repair tissueTo sustain growthTo help transport oxygen to cellsTo regulate body functions
5 Giving Your Body What It Needs There are six types of nutrients:Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats provide energyVitamins, minerals, and water perform a variety of other functionsGetting a proper balance of nutrients during the teen years can improve your health through adulthood.
6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are starches and sugars found in foods They act as the body’s main source of energyShould be 45-65% of your daily caloriesThere are three types of carbohydrates:Simple, complex, and fiber
7 Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrates Mainly sugarsFructose - Found in fruitsLactose - Found in milkFound naturally, but are also added to many processed foodsComplexMainly starchesLong chains of sugars linked togetherGrains, bread, pasta, beans, and root vegetables
9 FiberFiber is a tough complex carbohydrate that the body cannot digest.Responsible for moving waste through the digestive systemHelps you feel full, and may reduce the risks of cancer, heart disease, and Type 2 Diabetesgrams of fiber per day
10 ProteinsProteins are nutrients the body uses to build and maintain its cells and tissues. They are made up of chemicals called amino acids.
11 Types of Proteins Your body uses 20 amino acids found in foods 11 of these can be produced by the body and are called nonessential amino acids9 of these are called essential amino acids and the body must get them from certain foodsOther proteins come from animal sourcesMeat, eggs, dairy, and soyCalled “complete” proteins because they contain all nine essential amino acids
12 Roles of Proteins Protein is the basic building material of cells. The protein hemoglobin in red blood cells carries oxygen to all your body cells.Roughly 46 grams should be consumed per day, which is 10-15% of total daily calories.
13 Fats Saturated Unsaturated Found mostly in animal-based foods Consuming too many saturated fats may increase the risk of heart diseaseUnsaturatedFound in vegetable oils, nuts, and seedsConsuming in moderation may decrease the risk of heart disease
14 FatsTrans fats are formed by a process called hydrogenation, causing vegetable oils to harden.As vegetable oil hardens, it becomes more saturatedFound in stick margarine, snack foods, packaged baked goodsRaise total blood cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease
15 Bellwork 9/22/14 What are the six types of nutrients? Which three provide energy?Which is better for your body to consume, saturated fats, unsaturated fats, or trans fats?
16 Vitamins vs. Minerals Vitamins Compounds that help regulate body processesFat-soluble and water-solubleMineralsElements in food that your body cannot produce
17 Vitamins Water-Soluble Dissolve in water Easily pass into the bloodstreamExcreted through urineNot stored in the body so they must be replenished frequentlyFat-SolubleAbsorbed and transported by fatStored in fatty tissueLiver and kidneysExcess build-up can be damaging
18 Water Moves food through the digestive system Digests carbohydrates and proteinAids chemical reactions in the bodyTransports nutrients and removes wastesStores and releases heatCools the body through perspirationCushions the eyes, brain, and spinal cord
19 What Should We Be Eating? The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are a set of recommendations about smart eating and physical activity for all Americans.Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the amount of nutrients that will prevent deficiencies and excesses in most people.