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Chapters 3-6: Ecology.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapters 3-6: Ecology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapters 3-6: Ecology

2 Ecology study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment

3 Biosphere Part of the Earth that holds all living things
Air, land, and sea Living things affected by nonliving and living things

4 Abiotic factors Nonliving parts of an environment Temperature, moisture, light, soil…etc Biotic factors All living organisms that inhabit an environment Plants, other animals Depend on others directly or indirectly Food, shelter, reproduction, protection

5 Levels of Organization
Organisms make up  population Group of organisms of the same species Interbreed and live in the same area Can compete for food, water, mates

6 # of populations make up  community
Made up of interacting populations Change in a population can affect entire community

7 Populations + abiotic factors make up  ecosystem
Terrestrial (land): forests, meadows Aquatic (water): oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers

8 Habitat: place where an organism lives
Can change or disappear because of natural and human causes Niche: all the ways and adaptations a species uses in its environment How it meets its needs for food, shelter, survival, reproduction Biotic + abiotic parts of the environment

9 Predation consumers Eat plants and animals
Eat prey (animals that predators eat) Fight for survival

10 Symbiosis Relationship where there is a close and permanent association between different organisms Means “living together” 3 kinds

11 Mutualism Both species benefit (+,+)

12 Commensalism one benefits and the other does not benefit or is harmed (+,o)

13 Parasitism one benefits and the other is harmed (+,-)

14 How Organisms Get Energy
Sun is the ultimate form of energy and source for energy Producers: autotrophs Uses light to make own food (photosynthesis) and energy Ex: grass, trees, green algae

15 Consumers Heterotrophs Eat other organisms to get energy
CANNOT make its own food

16 Herbivores Only eat plants

17 Carnivores Only eat animals

18 Omnivores Eat both plants and animals

19 Scavengers Eat on dead organisms

20 Decomposers break down and release nutrients from dead organisms

21 Flow of Matter and Energy
You consume matter when you eat food Carbon, nitrogen, other elements Energy flows through levels of the entire ecosystem Only some energy is transferred from 1 energy level to the next

22 Food Chains show how matter and energy move through an ecosystem
Nutrients and energy move from autotrophs to heterotrophs and then decomposers Ex: grass  rabbit  wolf Arrows indicate the direction energy is transferred from one organism to the next

23 Ecological Pyramid shows how energy flows through an ecosystem
Energy that is transferred from one trophic level to the next is only 10%

24 Trophic Level A feeding step in passing of energy and materials
Heterotroph Heterotroph Herbivore Autotroph

25 Food Webs all the possible relationships at each trophic level of a community

26 Chapter 3-6 Review #1: Which of the following types of heterotrophs eat other animals? a. omnivores & carnivores c. carnivores only b. herbivores & omnivores d. carnivores & herbivores 2. Which of the following types of heterotrophs would bacteria and fungi be classified as? a. detritivores b. herbivores c. carnivores d. decomposers 3. What is the one-way flow of energy in an ecosystem called? a. food chain b. energy pyramid c. food web d. biomass pyramid 4. What is each step in a food chain or food web called?

27 Limiting Factors Affect an organism’s ability to survive in its environment Ex: water, food, predators, temperature Density-dependent: disease, competition, parasites, food Depend on the density of a population Density-independent: affects all populations regardless of their density Temperature, storms, floods, drought, and habitat disruption

28 Succession Natural changes and species replacement that takes place in communities in an ecosystem Occurs in stages Primary succession Colonizing bare land where there are no organisms Pioneer species: 1st species in an area

29 Climax Community Stable, mature community that has little or no changes in species

30 Secondary Succession Changes that occur when existing community is disrupted by natural disasters or human actions

31 Biomes Large group of ecosystems that share the same type of climax community Terrestrial or aquatic Aquatic: marine, estuaries, freshwater, swamps Terrestrial: tundra, taiga, desert, grassland, rain forest, temperate forest

32 Population Growth Organisms can grow exponentially
Exponential growth: as a population gets larger, it also grows faster J-shaped curve (diagram):

33 Growth will be limited at some point by limiting factors
Food availability, disease (ex: AIDS, influenza, TB, Dutch Elm disease, Pfiesteria), predators, lack of space Results in an S-shaped curve Diagram: Carrying capacity: the number of organisms of a species that an environment can hold

34 Define these terms: Birth rate Death rate Emigration Immigration Zero population growth

35 Biological Diversity Biodiversity: the variety of species in a specific area Loss of biodiversity is increasing Extinction: disappearance of a species when the last organism dies Ex: Endangered species: # of species become low that can lead to extinction Threatened species: population likely to become endangered

36 Cycles in Nature Matter is constantly being recycled

37 Water Cycle Water evaporates from lakes and oceans to become water vapor in the air Water vapor in the air condenses to form clouds More water condensation leads to precipitation, falling as rain, ice, or snow back to the ground Cycle repeats constantly


39 Problems with the cycle:

40 Carbon Cycle Starts with autotrophs
Makes carbon molecules from CO2 during photosynthesis Heterotrophs feed on autotrophs, getting those carbon molecules Release CO2 back into the atmosphere


42 Problems with Cycle Global Warming: Greenhouse effect
Gases that lead to global warming

43 Nitrogen Cycle Lightning and some bacteria convert nitrogen in the air into a usable form Plants use nitrogen to make proteins Herbivores eat plants Convert nitrogen-containing plant proteins into animal proteins Humans eat plants Convert animal proteins to human proteins Excess nitrogen in animals released in urine Returned to water or soil Nitrogen molecules return to the soil when animals die Re-used by plants Bacteria put nitrogen back into the air


45 Phosphorous Cycle All organisms need phosphorus for growth and development Plants get phosphorus from the soil Animals get phosphorus by eating plants Decompose when they die, returning phosphorus to the soil


47 Problems: Eutrophication

48 Impact of Human Activities on the Environment
Population growth Pollution Global warming Burning fossil fuels Habitat destruction Introducing nonnative species

49 Chapter 3-6 Review #2: A lone elephant joining another herd of elephants is an example of a. emigration c. immigration b. parasitism d. exponential growth 2. What term is used to describe a species whose population is rapidly shrinking and might disappear completely? a. endangered c. extinct b. threatened d. invasive

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