2 Principles of EcologyEcology – study of relationships between living and nonliving parts of the worldErnst Haeckel (1866) – first to use the word to name the study of how organisms fit into their environmentEcologists: Scientists who study Ecology
3 Parts of the Environment Abiotic Factors – non-living parts of an organism’s environment Air currents, temperature, moisture, light, soilBiotic Factors – all the living things that inhabit the environment- salmon, bears, trees, algae,microscopic organisms
4 Levels of Organization OrganismPopulationCommunityEcosystemBiomeBiosphere
5 Niche vs. Habitat Habitat – place an organism lives out its life Niche – role and position a species has in its environmentIncludes all biotic and abiotic interactions as an organism meets its needs for survivalIf two species are competing for the same niche, one will most likely drive the other out and take control of the niche.What is your niche?
6 Niche vs. Habitat vs. Ecosystem A great blue heron that lives around the Wye Marsh is part of the Wye river ecosystem. The heron and its mate eat fish, frogs, salamanders, snakes, crayfish, mice, aquatic insects, crickets, grasshoppers, and a variety of other insects in Georgian Bay and the Wye Marsh and build a nest in a tree along side the marsh.What is the heron’s habitat?What is the heron’s niche?What is the heron’s ecosystem?
7 Community Interactions Interactions in a community include competition for basic needs such as food, shelter, and mates, as well as relationships in which organisms depend on each other for survivalCompetition – Occurs when one or more organism uses a resource at the same timeWater during a droughtPredation – One organism consuming another organism for foodPredator – the organism that pursuesPrey – the organism that is pursued
8 RelationshipsAll living things form relationships with other living thingsSymbiotic Relationship – a relationship between organisms of two different species that live together in direct contact
9 Commensalism One organism benefits – The other is not affected Spanish moss on a treeBarnacles on a whaleBurdock seeds on a passing animal
10 Mutualism Both organisms benefit Acacia tree and ants (Pseudomyrmex sp.) – tree provides food for the ants and the ants protect the tree from animals that would eat the leavesLichens: algae and fungus living together Algae provides food (photosynthesis) and the fungus provides protection and attaches the lichen to the rock or wood where it lives.
11 Parasitism One organism benefits, the other is harmed Some live within the hostTapewormsHeartwormsBacteriaSome feed on the external surface of the hostTicksFleasMistletoeMost do not kill their host (at least not quickly)
12 Ecosystem Requirements #1 - Continuous supply of Energy#2 – A flow of energy from one population to another
13 Obtaining EnergyAutotrophs - use energy from the sun or energy stored in chemical compounds to produce energyHeterotrophs – must consume their energyHerbivoresCarnivoresOmnivoresDetritivore (AKA decomposers)
15 Carnivores Eat other heterotrophs Predators – kill their own food Scavengers – eat animals that are already dead
16 OmnivoresEat both autotrophs and heterotrophs (plants and animals)
17 Decomposers and Scavengers Decomposers – decompose organic matter andreturn nutrients to soil, water, and air.
18 Energy Pyramid The energy pyramid is made of several trophic levels Trophic Level- feeding level in a food chain or food webAutotrophs make up the first level, and heterotrophs make up the remaining levelsOrganisms at each level get their energy from the level before it
19 Food ChainsA simple model that shows how energy flows through an ecosystemEnergy flows in one direction
25 Cycles of MatterThe bodies of all organisms are built from water and nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorusMatter changes form, but is neither created nor destroyed; it is recycled continuously within and between ecosystemsEssential nutrients are cycled through biogeochemical processesBiogeochemical Cycle: The exchange of matter through the biosphere. These cycles connect living organisms (bio), geological processes (geo), and chemical processes (chemical)Organisms are an important part of this cycling system.
26 Water CycleWater is a necessary substance for the life processes of all living organisms.Water is found in the atmosphere, on the surface of Earth and underground, and in living organisms.The water cycle, also called the hydrologic cycle, is driven by the Sun’s heat energy, which causes water to:evaporate from water reservoirs (the ocean, lakes, ponds, rivers)condense into cloudsthen precipitate back to water bodies on Earth in the form of rain, sleet, or hail
28 Carbon CycleAll living things are composed of molecules that contain carbonCarbon and oxygen make up molecules essential for life, including carbon dioxide and simple sugarOrganisms play a major role in recycling carbon from one form to anotherDuring photosynthesis, plants release carbohydrates and oxygen back into the airThese carbohydrates are used as a source of energy for all organisms in the food web
29 Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen is an element found in proteins Nitrogen is found in the atmosphere, but organisms cannot use nitrogen directly from the atmosphereNitrogen is captured from the air by species of bacteria that live in water, the soil, or grow on the roots of some plantsThis process is called nitrogen fixation
30 Nitrogen Recycling Processes Nitrogen is introduced into the soil through precipitationThey can also come from fertilizersPlants absorb nitrogen compounds from the soil and convert them into proteinsAnimals eat the plants and use the nitrogen to build proteinWhen organisms poop, pee, or die, decomposers break themdown and the nitrogen is returned to the soil in the form ofammonia7. Organisms in the soil convert ammonia into nitrogen compoundsand soil bacteria convert nitrogen compounds back into nitrogengas in a process called denitrification
31 The Phosphorous CyclePhosphorus is essential for the growth and development of organismsIn the short-term cycle, phosphorus is cycled from the soil to producers, and from producers to consumersIn the long-term cycle, erosion of rocks that contain phosphorus slowly adds phosphorus to the cycle