Presentation on theme: "The interaction of organisms with the environment."— Presentation transcript:
1 The interaction of organisms with the environment. Ecology:The interaction of organisms with the environment.
2 Background Vocabulary Population:- all members of a single species in a given location
3 Community:-only living organisms – all populations together- all living thingsEcosystem:- living (organisms) with the non-living (water, soil oxygen, carbon dioxide, sunlight)Abiotic Factor – Not livingBiotic Factor - Living
4 Biosphere:- portion of earth where life exists- composed of numerous ecosystems (earth)
5 Competition:- two different organisms living in the same environment utilizing the same limited resources will compete (fight)Habitat:- organisms home – where an organism livesNiche:- an organisms role in the environment****organisms can occupy the same habitat , but not the same niche
6 These birds are occupying the same habitat but not the same niche
7 An ecosystem is made up of abiotic and biotic factors. An ecosystem is self-sustaining if:- constant source of energy- cycling of materials
8 Abiotic Factors (NON_LIVING): - physical and chemical factors which affect an organisms ability to survive- the non-living factors- ex. Intensity of light pH levels- range of temperatures - supply of gases- amount of moisture
9 drought heavy snow extreme cold Limiting Factors (Abiotic or Biotic): - determine the types of organisms which may exist in an environment- ex: abiotic factors are limiting factorsex. If a body of water’s dissolved oxygen level is low, fish that need higher oxygen levels could suffocate and die.droughtheavy snowextreme cold
10 Carrying Capacity:- maximum size of a population that can be sustained in a given area.- limited resources affect populations: food, water, shelter, etc.- members of a species compete for these things.
11 Biotic Factors:- all living things that affect the environment
12 Autotrophs or Producers: - synthesize their own food (inorganic to organic)- ex. Photosynthesis and chemosynthesis
13 Heterotrophs or Consumers: - cannot synthesize their own food.
14 Decomposers:-break down organic wastes and dead organisms to simpler ones. (Recycle nutrients in an ecosystem)
15 Types of Heterotrophs: 1- Saprophytes: heterotrophic plants, fungi and bacteria which live on dead matter.(Decomposers)
24 Food (Energy) Pyramid: Producers: (plants) autotrophs – photosynthesisPrimary consumers: herbivoresSecondary consumers: carnivores**omnivores can be primary or secondaryDecomposers: Recycle nutrients in ecosystem (Bacteria & Fungi)**There is a decrease in the overall energy in each level as you move up the food chain, web or pyramid.**There is more energy in the producer level than at the consumer level
25 least energy most energy producers primary consumers tertiary secondaryconsumersprimary consumersmost energyproducers
31 3. Parasitism: (+, -) parasite benefits at expense of host ex. Tapeworm, athletes foot
32 Succession:- Replacement of populations/communities until a stable community is reached – takes a very long timePioneer Organisms:- First organisms to inhabit a location (lichens & mosses)Climax Community:- Community in which populations remain stableBiodiversity-- wide variety of species- a climax community contains a great deal of biodiversity
34 Pioneer Organism:- first organisms to inhabit a given location- ex. Lichens & Mosses
35 Succession of a climax forest Living things modify the environment one community makes it more suitable for the nextPioneer organisms Climax ForestClimate changes, natural disasters, and human activity can alter this process, but succession will continue and restore the climax community
36 **Materials are reused** In a self-sustaining ecosystem, materials must be cycled among the organisms and the abiotic environment**Materials are reused**Carbon-Hydrogen-Oxygen Cycle:- Involves the process of respiration and photosynthesis
37 2. Water Cycle:- involves photosynthesis, transpiration, evaporation, condensation, precipitation, respiration, and excretion