Presentation on theme: "1 Ecology Review. 2 What is Ecology? Ecology - the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. This includes: abiotic (nonliving)"— Presentation transcript:
2 What is Ecology? Ecology - the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. This includes: abiotic (nonliving) and biotic (living) things. Abiotic – water, space, air, warmth, sunlight Biotic – food, mates
3 Types of Interactions Ecology Studies 1.Competition - when a resource is scarce, only those the best at getting it will survive. 2.Food Chains – Diagrams showing the feeding relationships in an ecosystem (who eats who). 3.Predator/Prey Relationship – Some animals hunt others for food.
4 Types of Interactions Ecology Studies 4.Symbiotic Relationships – Organisms work together to survive. 5.Nutrient Recycling – The raw materials life needs to survive are reused by the ecosystem.
5 Parts of the Biosphere 1.Species – a group of organisms that can reproduce (Ex – humans). 2.Population – The number of a species in a given area (Ex – all the humans living in Deer Park). 3.Community – All the species in a given area (Ex – the humans, trees, grasses, bacteria, squirrels, mice….. Living in Deer Park.)
6 Parts of the Biosphere 4.Ecosystem – The community and all the nonliving things in an area (Ex – all the plants, animals, bacteria, fungi and protists, plus the air, water, and climate of Deer Park). 5.Biosphere – The area on the Earth that supports life (includes the bottom of the oceans to the upper atmosphere).
8 Competition Since resources will eventually run out, organisms have to compete for it. Can be between members of the same species (Ex – Polar Bears have to compete for fish to eat). Can be between members of a different species (Ex – a robin and a woodpecker might compete over a tree to build a nest in.)
9 Niche Niche – the role an organism plays in the environment (Ex – The Great White Shark is the top consumer in some marine ecosystems.) If two organisms occupy the same niche they will compete for resources until one species is forced out.
10 Carrying Capacity The maximum number of individuals an ecosystem can support is the carrying capacity. Once the carrying capacity is met, limiting factors (such as space, food, shelter) keeps the population size near this carrying capacity.
12 Predator – Prey Relationships Predators Can Control the Prey Population Predators help control the prey population (Since there are few predators of Deer left in New York State, their population size is out of control). If there are no natural predators the prey become overpopulated.
13 Predator – Prey Relationships Prey Populations Can Control the Size of Predator Populations If there are few prey in an area, a small number of predators can survive. If there are many prey in an area, more predators can survive.
14 Predator-Prey Relationships The Predators and Prey May Have No Relationship If the predators rely on many sources of food, one disappearing may have little effect (Ex – If cows go extinct we might have to eat more chicken, but humans would still survive.)
15 Predator-Prey Relationship Example MooseWolves
16 Food Chains Parts of the Food Chain 1.Producers – (Autotrophs) make their own food from abiotic factors (Ex – Green plants make glucose by photosynthesis.) 2.Herbivores – Consumers that eat only plants. (Ex – rabbits eat crops and other plants)
17 Food Chains 3.Carnivores – Eat only other consumers (Ex – lion). 4.Omnivores – Eat plants and animals (Ex – Humans). 5.Detrivores – (Decomposers) Feed off of and break down dead organisms. These are usually bacteria and fungi.
18 Food Webs Food Webs show all of the overlapping food chains in an ecosystem. Arrows always point towards the consumer – this shows the flow of energy.
19 Food Pyramid Relationships Pyramid of Energy Show the amount of energy available at each step of a food chain. Each level of the pyramid is called a Trophic Level. The organisms at the first trophic level have the most energy. The amount of energy decreases as you go up the pyramid, since it is used for the life functions.
21 Food Pyramid Relationships Biomass Pyramid Measures the amount of material at each trophic level. Like the Energy Pyramid, the larges biomass is at the base (producers) and it decreases as you move up the pyramid.
23 Food Pyramid Relationships Pyramid of Population Size The third pyramid shows the number of individuals at each trophic level. Life the other two pyramids, the largest population is at the base (producers) and decreases as you move up the pyramid.
25 Energy Pyramid Shows the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level. Organisms use about 10 percent of this energy for life processes. The rest is lost as heat. Pyramid of Numbers Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level. Biomass Pyramid Represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level. Typically, the greatest biomass is at the base of the pyramid. Summary of the Pyramid Relationships
26 Biological Magnification If a poison is introduced into an ecosystem, it will affect each level of the food chain more severely. Each level of the food chain will have more individuals affected.
28 Symbiotic Relationships Organisms can interact in three main ways: 1.Mutualism – Both species benefit (Ex – E.Coli in our Large Intestine and Humans.) 2.Commensalism –One species benefits and the other is not affected (Ex – Barnacles living on a whale. 3.Parasitism – One species benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed (host). (Ex –Tapeworms and humans.)
29 Nutrient Recycling Water Cycle - Earth’s water supply is constantly recycled throughout the biosphere: Evaporation – water vapor leaves the oceans and joins the atmosphere. Transpiration – water vapor evaporates off of plant leaves. Condensation – water vapor in the atmosphere forms clouds. Precipitation – water vapor in the atmosphere falls to the ground (rain.)
30 Nutrient Recycling CO 2 and O 2 Cycle Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration work together to recycle carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere. Photosynthesis – in plants, uses up CO 2 and produces O 2 as a waste. Cellular Respiration – in consumers, uses O 2 and produces CO 2 as a waste.
31 Nutrient Recycling Nitrogen Cycle The Nitrogen in the atmosphere is made usable for living things through Nitrogen Fixation. Plants use this nitrogen in the soil to make protein. This is assimilation. Once the plants and organisms that eat the plants die, decomposers break down the remains and return the nitrogen to the soil and the atmosphere.
32 Ecological Succession As organisms live in a given area, they change their environment. As the environment changes, so do the organisms that can live there.
33 Ecological Succession Primary Succession – a pioneer organism first grows on a bare rock surface (Ex – Hawaiian Islands) Secondary Succession – after a disaster (fire, drought) succession begins again at an intermediate stage (Ex – Pine Barrens of Long Island).
34 Human Effects on the Environment Negative Effects: 1.Urbanization 2.Industrialization 3.Agriculture 4.Exploitation of Wildlife 5.Deforestation
35 Greenhouse Effect Carbon Dioxide and other Greenhouse gases trap the suns energy in our atmosphere to keep the earth within a range of suitable temperatures for the survival of the present organisms
36 Global Warming By burning fossil fuels (use of automobiles, electricity, home heating) carbon dioxide is released as a waste gas. At the same time we are cutting down trees which would have used up the Carbon Dioxide.
37 Global Warming As a result, Carbon Dioxide levels increase, trapping MUCH MORE heat from the sun and gradually causing the Earth to warm up. Global Warming could cause sea level to rise, habitats to be destroyed, draught, and mass extinction.
38 Acid Rain Air pollution in the atmosphere combines with rain water, lowering the pH of the rain. The resulting acid rain damages freshwater ecosystems, and there is evidence linking it to extinctions of many amphibian species.
39 Ozone Layer Depletion The ozone layer is part of the upper atmosphere and blocks harmful rays of the sun. The release of CFC’s from aerosol cans and other sources of air pollution interact with the atmosphere and deplete the ozone layer. If the ozone layer is destroyed, harmful rays from the sun would cause catastrophic mutations and would threaten all life on Earth.
40 Positive Human Influences Conservation of Resources Recycling Pollution Controls Decreasing our dependence on fossil fuels.