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Chapter One: Discovering Sociology

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter One: Discovering Sociology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter One: Discovering Sociology
Chapter Two: Doing Sociology

2 Chapter Overview What is Sociology? The Origins of Sociology
First Sociologists Sexism in Early Sociology Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology

3 What is Sociology? The scientific study of human behavior, groups, and society Great tool for analyzing and understanding social life or the world Attempt to understand without judgment Examine how social contexts influence people’s lives Examines the link between what people do and the social setting that shapes behavior. Small group social settings Large group social settings

4 Social Location What is Sociology?
Sociologists study ones social location to understand human behavior Jobs, Social Class, Race, Occupation, Sex, Religion and other demographics Social Location can shape our ideas of who we are and what we should attain in life

5 The Sociological Perspective
Stresses the social contexts in which people live Looks at how people are influenced by their society and how social forces affect human behavior “The Sociological Imagination”

6 Development of Sociology
Major social change in the 19th century (1800’s) The Industrial Revolution challenged traditional ideas about social life Intellectual climate American and French Revolution The scientific method, which was used in the physical sciences, led to the birth of Sociology

7 Auguste Comte: Founder of Sociology Lived in France
1st Sociologist to advocate using positivism to studying social life Sociology a new science Coined the term “Sociology” (the study of society) Advocate of social reform

8 Herbert Spencer: Social Darwinism Lived in England
Disagreed with Comte that Sociology should guide reform Coined the term “Survival of the Fittest” Societies are evolutionary Evolve from lower to higher forms Civilians (higher forms) Barbarians (lower forms) Over time societies improve and become advanced Social Reform interferes with natural process of selection Social Philosopher Did not conduct scientific studies Only developed ideas about society

9 Karl Marx: Class Conflict Human history Class Conflict
Created by class conflict Economics is central force for social change Class Conflict Proletariat vs. the Bourgeoisie Marx’ predictions Social class revolution Classless society Marxism is not the same as Communism “I am not a Communist”

10 Max Weber: Religion Lived in Germany Disagreed with Marx
Economics is not the central force for social change Religion central for social change in society The Protestant Ethic is tied to the rise of capitalism 10

11 Protestant Ethic and the Rise of Capitalism
Compared Catholic religion with Protestant religion to prove this theory Catholic religion encourages followers to hold onto traditional ways of life and believe everyone will go to heaven Protestant religion encourages followers to embrace change Religion was a key factor to the rise of capitalism

12 Emile Durkheim: Social Integration
First to establish sociology as a separate academic discipline; a social science Explained that Sociological ideas could be tested and published Theory: Social forces shape human behavior Studied suicide rates in several European countries

13 Rural Areas Urban Areas City life Agricultural life Larger population
Individualistic: no time for social interaction or new friendships People work hrs a day/ 6 to 7 days a week Isolated among family and friends Higher suicide rates Agricultural life Smaller population Close friendships and family ties Great social support and social control People followed rules of social conduct Lower suicide rates

14 Catholics and Protestants
Married and unmarried Females and males SOCIAL FACTORS underlie suicide Social Integration The degree to which people are tied to their social group How closely linked people are to their social group (strong or weak bonds)

15 Types of Suicide Egotistic Altruistic Anomic Suicide
Low social integration/weak bonds Individualistic Altruistic High social integration/strong bonds Willing to die to accomplish group’s goals Anomic Suicide No integration Can not pursue society’s goals

16 Sexism in Early Sociology
Attitudes of the Time 1800s Sex Roles Rigidly Defined Higher education reserved for men and the wealthy Women devoted themselves to the 4 C’s Church, cooking, children, and clothes Harriet Martineau Published Society in America Before Durkheim and Weber Were Born Known for translating Comte’s works from French to English Harriet Martineau

17 Jane Addams and Social Reform
Jane Addams Came from a background of privilege Social reformer She worked tirelessly for social justice Co-founded the Hull House in 1889 Campaigned for laws against child labor Leader of women’s rights and peace movement of World War I Co-winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931

18 W.E.B. Du Bois and Race Relations
1st African American to earn a doctorate at Harvard Grew up within a very racist society Every year between 1896 and 1914 he published a book on race relations between African Americans and Whites Souls of Black Folk 1903 Philadelphia Negro He became active in social reform after years of collecting and interpreting data Founded the N.A.A.C.P

19 Three Theoretical Perspectives
Theory-a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work Symbolic Interactionist Functional Analysis Conflict Theory

20 Applying Theories Each theoretical perspective looks at statistical data in a different light, i.e. marriage and divorce rates

21 Symbolic Interactionism
Symbolic Interactionists believe that individuals evaluate their own conduct by comparing themselves with others Symbolic Interactionists study: How people interpret symbols How people interact one on one How people behave according to how they define themselves and others

22 Functional Analysis The Functional Analysis perspective views society as a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together. Functional Analysists study: The structure of society How each part of society has certain functions that must be fulfilled What happens to society when dysfunctions occurb

23 Conflict Theory Founded by Karl Marx
Groups competing for scarce resources Groups competing for power and authority Conflict can be positive as it can bring about positive change


25 Sociological Analysis
Two Levels of Sociological Analysis Macro Level - Large Scale Patterns in Society Functional Analysis and Conflict Theory are components of Macroanalysis Micro Level-Social interactions on a small scale Symbolic Interactionism is a component of Microanalysis Which level of analysis is best?

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