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The Sociological Perspective

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Presentation on theme: "The Sociological Perspective"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Sociological Perspective
Chapter 1 Mr. Porter

2 3 Questions Should sociologists try to reform society?
What are the 3 perspectives, which do you prefer and why? What’s the difference between macro and micro approaches in sociology? Which is the best to explain social life and why?

3 Seeing the Broader Social Context
How groups influence people How people are influenced by their society People who share a culture People who share a territory

4 Social Location Jobs Income Education Gender Age Race

5 C. Wright Mills “The sociological perspective enables us to grasp the connection between history and biography.” History- society is located in a broad stream of events.

6 C. Wright Mills Biography- Individual specific experience
External influence our experiences This becomes part of our thinking and motivation.

7 Growing Global Context
Global Village Instant Communication Everyone has different lives Sociology studies both global network and our experience.

8 Sociology and other Sciences
To satisfy the needs of humans in regards to the world around them, humans developed science. Sociology was developed by humans as a scientific study of society and human behavior. Sciences are divided into two categories (Natural Science and Social Sciences)

9 Natural Science Intellectual and academic disciplines designed to explain and predict the events in our natural environment Biology Geology Chemistry Physics

10 Social Sciences Social Sciences examine the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to understand the social world objectively by means of controlled and repeated observations. Anthropology Economics Political Science Psychology Sociology

11 Anthropology Anthropology- Study of Cultures (4 Types)
Cultural Anthropology Archeology Physical/Biological Anthropology Linguistic Anthropology

12 Economics Economics- Studies the production and distribution of goods and services. Examine what goods are being produced, cost and distributed Study why people purchase certain items rather than others

13 Political Science Political Sci- the study how people govern themselves. Politics Government Consequences of breaking rules

14 Psychology Psychology- The study of processes within individuals.
Focus on mental process Examine intelligence, emotions, perception, memory and dreams

15 Sociology Similar to the other sciences (study culture like anthropology, study goods and services like economics) Sociologists look at how people of different backgrounds look at the same information.

16 The Goal of Science Explain why things happen To make generalizations
Look for patterns Go beyond what as seen as common sense

17 Origins of Sociology For centuries people tried to figure out social life. By the mid 1800’s people began to apply science methods As the Industrial Revolution came about, people began to study the problems with society. Sociology grew out of social upheaval Scientific Method- using objective, systematic observations to test theories

18 Auguste Comte & Positivism
Applying the scientific method to the social world. What creates social order? As one society sets in a course, how does it change? Applied scientific method and coined it sociology.

19 Herbert Spenser & Social Darwinism
Disagreed with Comte Believed societies evolve from lower to higher. Most capable in society will survive Help the poor will only interfere with the process “Survival of the Fittest”

20 Karl Marx & Class Conflict
Engine of human history is class conflict. Bourgeoisis vs Proletariat Marxism is not the same as Communism. Marx did not think of himself as a Sociologist. One of 3 greatest thinkers in history

21 Emile Durkheim & Social Integration
Able to get sociology recognized as separate academic discipline. Social forces affect behavior. Identified Social Integration- degree to which people feel part of a social group.

22 Max Weber & Protestant Ethic
Disagreed with Marx’s claim that economics central force in social change. Religion (Prostestants) brought the rise of capitalism. Still debated about today.

23 Values in Sociological Research
Weber pushed for sociology should be value free. Weber felt that sociology should be objective. Researchers should involve replication. Wide variety of uses for sociology Used to help human suffering (Social Reform) Some feel it should be used for any purpose Used to describe events not to place judgment

24 Weber uses Verstehen Verstehen- “To grasp by insight” Durkheim
Understand subjective meaning (way people interpret their own behavior) Durkheim Stressed Social Facts (group patterns of behavior) Use social facts to interpret social facts How social facts and verstehen work together

25 Females in Sociology Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)
Born into a wealthy family, she began analyzing social life while keeping it a secret. Studied in both the U.S. and the U.K. Published Society in America Her work was ignored

26 Sociology in North America
Sociology can be traced to Univ. of Kansas, Univ. of Chicago & Atlanta Univ. late 1800’s Many women work as social workers rather than sociologist (Not like today’s social worker)

27 Jane Addams & Social Reform
Born into wealth and privilege Attended The Women's Medical College of Philadelphia She was inspired by what was being done for the poor in London 1889, she founded the Hull-House in Chicago

28 W.E.B. Du Bois & Race Relations
First African American to earn a Harvard Wrote over 2,000 writings on white and black relations from Founded the NAACP Until recently, his writings were rejected by sociology

29 Sociology Through the Years
Early North American sociologists combined the role of sociologist w/ social reformer By the 1940’s, Talcott Parsons developed models on how society works together which did nothing to promote social activism Mills pushed for Sociologists to get back to promoting social reform Mills found that the power elite was imminent threat to our freedom.

30 Tension & Rise of Applied Sociology
Micro Level- Looks at family and relationships Macro Level- Looks at outside sources such as crime and pollution Applied Sociology- The use of sociology to solve problems in society either macro or micro levels. NAACP Pornography AIDS

31 3 Major Theories 1. Symbolic Interactionism 2. Functional Analysis
3. Conflict Theory

32 Symbolic Interactionism
Theory that society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another. George Herbert Mead is considered one of the founders to symbolic interactionism.

33 Applying Symbolic Interactionism
George H. Mead We use symbols to attach meaning 1. Emotional Satisfaction 2. The Love Symbol 3. The Meaning of Children 4. The Meaning of Parenthood 5. Marital Roles 6. Perception of Alternatives 7. The Meaning of Divorce 8. Changes in the Law

34 Functional Analysis Theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibrium. These functions can be either manifest or latent.

35 Applying Functional Analysis
1. Economic Production 2. Socialization of Children 3. Care of the Sick and Elderly 4. Recreation 5. Sexual Control 6. Reproduction

36 Conflict Theory Founded by Karl Marx
Theory in which society is viewed as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Human history as a class struggle (bourgeoisie & proletariat)

37 Conflict Theory Cont. Today its used in a broader sense, used in all relations that deal with authority. Today it can be seen such as Feminists and equal rights to men. Applying it today with the changes in our society. Compare the Divorce Rate and how times have changed.

38 Difference Between the Theories
Level of analysis. Functionalists and Conflict Theorists are more focused on Marco Level. Symbolic Interactionists more focused on Micro Level, on Social Interaction. Symbolic would focus on nonverbal interactions.

39 Sociology in General Phase 1 to improve society (lasted until the 1920’s) Phase 2 to make sociology a better field of knowledge (1920’s- early 1940’s) Phase 3 to apply research and findings through the development of applied sociology (1940’s to present day).

40 Trends of the Future Globalization- the extensive interconnections among nations due to the expansion of capitalism. The focus is more than just the U.S. but rather now global issues. Looking at Globalization of Capitalism in which capitalism is the globes dominant economic system.

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