Presentation on theme: "The People of Sociology. Auguste Comte (1798-1857, French) Coined the term “sociology” Theory- Societies contain social statics (forces for social order."— Presentation transcript:
Auguste Comte (1798-1857, French) Coined the term “sociology” Theory- Societies contain social statics (forces for social order and stability) and social dynamics (forces for conflict and change) called “positivism”. called “positivism”.
Harriet Martineau (1802-1876, British) Translated and condensed Comte’s work. Wrote “Society in America” 1837.
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903, British) Used evolutionary perspective to explain social order. Societies had separate parts. They developed through a process of “struggle” (for existence) and “fitness” (for survival). Survival of the fittest. This notion has been used to justify class, racial, ethnic, and gender inequalities, and to rationalize the lack of action to eliminate harmful practices that contribute to such inequalities.
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917, French) Limits of human potential are based socially not biologically. People are a product of their social environment.
Karl Marx, Durkheim, Weber, and Georg Simmel established the course for modern sociology.
Karl Marx (1818-1883, German) Economics is the central force for social change. Contrast to Durkheim, believes conflict is necessary to produce social change.