Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 3 Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence _________________________.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence _________________________."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence _________________________

2 Children’s Knowledge and Beliefs about Gender Distinguishing between females and males From birth, infants are surrounded by cues signifying gender Infants and toddlers are able to distinguish males and females ________________________

3 Children’s Knowledge and Beliefs about Gender Gender identity and self-perceptions By age 2 or 3, children can label their own gender Children begin to view their own gender more favorably than the other gender ________________________

4 Children’s Knowledge and Beliefs about Gender Gender stereotypes Young children (2 years old) associate specific objects and activities with females and males Gender stereotypes for toys, clothing, activities, occupations, etc. develop by age 3 Gendered personality stereotypes demonstrated later than other gender stereotypes Gender stereotypes are rigid between ages 5 and 7, then become more flexible until adolescence ________________________

5 Gender-Related Activities and Interests Physical performance and sports Girls and boys similar in motor skills in preschool and elementary years Gender differences in motor skills favoring boys increasingly pronounced from childhood through adolescence Differential opportunities Hormonal changes Social pressures ________________________

6 Gender-Related Activities and Interests Toys and play Generally differentiated by gender Girls: dolls, cooking sets, dress-up, soft toys Boys: vehicles, sports equipment, tools Girls more likely than boys to choose neutral or cross-gender toys and activities Different play environments ________________________

7 Gender-Related Activities and Interests Gender segregation Children prefer playing with same-gender children by age 2 This preference is especially strong in middle childhood Reasons? Girls tend to dislike rough, aggressive play Boys unresponsive to girls’ polite suggestions Shared preference for gender-typed toys and activities ________________________

8 Influences on Gender Development Socialization: The process by which each generation passes along to children the knowledge, beliefs, and skills that constitute the culture of the social group ________________________

9 Influences on Gender Development Parents Provide children with distinctive clothing, room furnishings, toys Foster gender stereotypes through conversation Assign chores based on gender Speak and act differently with girls than with boys Are role models for their children ________________________

10 Influences on Gender Development Siblings Older siblings important source of gender socialization ________________________

11 Influences on Gender Development School Gender-biased social structure Differential treatment in the classroom Boys called on more than girls Girls more reprimanded for calling out than boys ________________________

12 Influences on Gender Development Peers Exert strong pressures on one another Gender atypical behavior less tolerated among boys than among girls ________________________

13 Influences on Gender Development Media Females and males portrayed in stereotyped ways Television and gender stereotypes ________________________

14 Puberty Puberty: Period of life during which sexual organs mature and the ability to reproduce emerges Primary sex characteristics Secondary sex characteristics Menarche: the first menstrual period Changes in onset over time and across cultures Feelings about menstruation Advertising and cultural pressures Effects of negative attitude toward menstruation ________________________

15 Puberty Gender differences in puberty Girls finish puberty about two years before boys Girls’ adolescent growth spurt starts about age 9, and age 11 for boys Girls gain more fatty tissue than boys; boys gain more muscle tissue than girls ________________________

16 Puberty Early and late maturation in girls Early maturing girls May have feelings of self-consciousness and shame Confronted with challenging sexual expectations Associate with older peers As well adjusted as other girls by the end of high school Late maturing girls May have low social status during middle school Often dissatisfied with appearance May end up more popular and more satisfied with appearance than early maturing girls ________________________

17 Psychosocial Development in Adolescence Identity: Deciding who we are and what we want to make of our lives Importance of individuation may be more relevant for boys than girls ( Identity development requires interplay between separateness and connectedness Adolescent females and males take similar paths in quest for identity Importance of extended kinship network for identity development of girls of color ________________________

18 Psychosocial Development in Adolescence Self-Esteem: Sense of worth or value that people attach to themselves High self-esteem associated with good psychological and physical health Self-esteem diminishes for both genders in early adolescence Girls’ show lower self-esteem than boys African-American girls have higher self-esteem than other girls Girls more dissatisfied with appearance than boys School may undermine girls’ perception of their competence Girls become more acutely aware of sexism during adolescence “Loss of voice” ________________________

19 Psychosocial Development in Adolescence Gender intensification: Increasing divergence in gender-related behaviors and attitudes of girls and boys that emerges in adolescence Physical changes of puberty accentuate gender differences in appearance Adults apply increasing pressure on girls to be “feminine” Dating encourages increase in gender-stereotypical behavior Gender intensification starts to decrease by middle to late adolescence ________________________

20 Psychosocial Development in Adolescence Body image Influenced by cultural ideal of extreme thinness for females Self-objectification: Girls and women in Western culture internalize society’s view of body as sexual object to be looked at and evaluated Girls much more concerned with body weight and appearance than boys around the world Compared to boys, during adolescence girls: Have less positive body image Are less satisfied with their weight Are more likely to be dieting ________________________

21 Psychosocial Development in Adolescence Body image, continued Gender differences in body image increased since the mid-20 th century Increasing emphasis on thinness as ideal for females Pressure from family and friends to be thin can undermine girls’ body image Black women more satisfied with their bodies and less concerned with their weight than White women Less emphasis on thinness in Black culture than White culture Women of color still more concerned about their weight than males of color Lesbians have higher body image than heterosexual women, but still have more weight concerns than heterosexual men ________________________

Download ppt "Chapter 3 Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence _________________________."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google