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PLANTS-A brief introduction of chapters 22 thru 25.

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Presentation on theme: "PLANTS-A brief introduction of chapters 22 thru 25."— Presentation transcript:

1 PLANTS-A brief introduction of chapters 22 thru 25

2 What is a plant?  Multicellular eukaryotes  Cell walls made of cellulose  Carry out photosynthesis using chlorophyll a & b  Most are autotrophs

3 Plant Life Cycle  All plants have a life cycle with alternation of generations  Alternate between haploid and diploid phases  Gametophyte and sporophyte

4 Plant Survival  Sunlight  Water and minerals  Gas exchange  Photosynthesis and cellular respiration  Water movement and nutrients

5 Evolution and classification of Plants Flowering plants Cone-bearing plants Ferns and their relatives Mosses and their relatives Green algae ancestor Flowers; Seeds Enclosed in Fruit Seeds Water-Conducting (Vascular) Tissue * The plant kingdom is divided up into 4 groups based on water conducting tissues, seeds, and flowers.

6 Bryophytes (Non-vascular plants)  Do not contain vascular tissue (specialized tissue that conducts water and nutrients)  Depend on water for reproduction through osmosis  Relatively small  Live in areas where there is rainfall or dew

7 Examples of Bryophytes  Mosses  Liverworts  Hornworts

8 Seedless Vascular Plants 2 types of tissue Xylem: carries water upward Phloem: transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates Can move fluids through the plant against force of gravity

9 Seedless Vascular Plants cont.…  Basic structures  Roots: underground organ that absorb water and minerals  Leaves: photosynthetic organs that contain bundles of vascular tissue  Veins: the vascular tissue is gathered into these structures; made of xylem and phloem  Stems: support structures  Club mosses, Horsetails, and Ferns

10 Seed Plants  Divided into 2 groups: Gymnosperms and angiosperms  Gymnosperms: bear seeds directly on surface of cones  Conifers: pines and spruces  Angiosperms: also called flowering plants; bear seeds within a layer of tissue that protect the seed  Grasses, flowering trees, and shrubs  Adapted to a reproductive life without the need for water  Transfer sperm by pollination and the protection of embryos in seeds

11 Angiosperms  Develop unique reproductive organs known as flowers  Flowers contain ovaries, which surround and protect the seeds Any guess what an ovary is commonly called?

12 Angiosperms cont.  Fruit: a wall of tissue surrounding the seed; developed from a mature ovary  Digestion of fruit leads to great success of these plants  2 types of angiosperms; Monocot and Dicot

13 MonocotsDicots Seeds Leaves Flowers Stems Roots Single cotyledon Parallel veins Floral parts often in multiples of 3 Vascular bundles scattered throughout stem Fibrous roots Two cotyledons Branched veins Floral parts often in multiples of 4 or 5 Vascular bundles arranged in a ring Taproot Comparison of Monocots and Dicots

14 Structure of a Flower  A flower is a reproductive organ that are composed of 4 kinds of specialized leaves  Sepal: outermost circle of floral parts  Petals: often brightly colored; found just inside sepals  Stamens: the male parts of a flower; composed of anther and filament  Carpels: the female parts of a flower; composed of stigma, style and ovary

15 Filament Anther Stigma Style Ovary Carpel Petal Sepal Ovule Stamen The Structure of a Flower Stamen: produces haploid male gametophytes (pollen) Carpel: pollen lands on sticky stigma Most gymnosperm pollinations takes place via wind, and most angiosperms via animals

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