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Kingdom Plantae.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Plantae."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Plantae

2 How Plants came to be

3 Overview of the Plant Kingdom
Botanists divide the plant kingdom into four groups based on three important features: Water conducting tissues Seeds Flowers

4 Mosses

5 Ferns

6 Cone Bearing Plant

7 Flowering plant



10 The Plant Life Cycle Plants have life cycles that are characterized by alternation of generations The two generations are the haploid (N) gametophyte, or gamete-producing plant, and the diploid (2N) sporophyte, or spore-producing plant.


12 Bryophytes Type of early plant with no vascular tissue that draw water in their cells by osmosis.


14 Moss


16 Liverwort

17 Hornwort

18 In just a few million years, plants grew to a whole new scale on the landscape.
Q: What caused this increase in size? A: Vascular Tissue

19 Vascular tissue A type of tissue that is specialized to conduct water and nutrients through the body of the plant

20 Evolution of Vascular Tissue
Both forms of vascular tissue—xylem and phloem—can move fluids throughout the plant body, even against the force of gravity.

21 Xylem Carry water upwards from the roots to every part of the plant

22 Phloem Transports nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis from the leaves down to the roots


24 22–3 Seedless Vascular Plants


26 Club Mosses 

27 Horsetails

28 Ferns Underground Stem


30 Over millions of years, plants with a single trait—the ability to form seeds—became the most dominant group of photosynthetic organisms on land. Seed plants are divided into two groups:

31 Gymnosperms Cone plants
Bear their seeds directly on the surfaces of cones Ex.) conifers, pines, spruces, cycads, ancient ginkgoes and gnetophytes

32 Angiosperms Flowering plants
Bear their seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seed Ex.) grasses, flowering trees shrubs, wild flowers







39 Monocots and Dicots Monocots and dicots are named for the number of seed leaves, or cotyledons, in the plant embryo. Monocots have one seed leaf, and dicots have two seed leafs


41 Flowers Seed bearing structures of angiosperms


43 Entire Male Gamtophyte
Pollen Entire Male Gamtophyte

44 Pollen grain Contains the male gamete


46 Pollination The transfer of pollen from the male gametophyte to the female gametophyte






52 Seed Coat Surrounds and protects the embryo and keeps the contents of the seed from drying out Can be specialized for dispersal


54 Flowers and Fruits Angiosperms have unique reproductive organs known as flowers. Q: Why are flowers evolutionary adaptations? A: they attract animals that pollinate them

55 Flowers contain ovaries, which surround and protect the seeds
After pollination, the ovary develops into a fruit, which protects the seed and aids in its dispersal.

56 Fruit Ripened ovary, thick wall of tissue that surrounds the seed
Hard, tart fruit protects developing seed from herbivores Ripe, sweet, soft fruit attracts animals to disperse seeds

57 Which Plants have better adapted
to live on land?


59 Vascular plants also evolved the ability to produce lignin, a substance that makes cell walls rigid.
The presence of lignin allows vascular plants to grow upright and tall

60 Roots Absorb water and minerals

61 Leaves Collect light for photosynthesis

62 Veins Made of xylem and phloem

63 Stems Used for support, connect roots and leaves, carry water between them

64 Woody and Herbaceous Plants
Woody plants – Have woody stems Ex.) trees, shrubs, vines

65 Herbaceous Plants Plant stems that are smooth and nonwoody
Ex.) dandelions, petunias, and sunflowers

66 Annuals, Biennials, and Perennials

67 Annuals Angiosperms that complete a life cycle within one growing season

68 Biennials Angiosperms that complete their life cycle in two years
In the first year, biennials germinate and grow roots, stems, leaves During their second year, biennials grow new stems and leaves and then produce flowers and seeds

69 Perennials Flowering plants that live for more than two years



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