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Kingdom Plantae.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Plantae."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Plantae

2 Plant Characteristics
Eukaryotic Multicellular Cell walls made of cellulose Develop from multicellular embryos Carry out photosynthesis Contain chlorophyll a & b Reproduce by alternation of generations

3 Plant Adaptations to Land
Solutions: Roots absorb H2O & minerals Lignin & cellulose in cell walls Vascular Transport System Waxy cuticle & stomata with guard cells Pollen containing sperm Problems: Need minerals Gravity Increase in Height for Light Adaptations for Drier environment Reproduction

4 Parts of a Leaf

5 What do plants need to survive?
CO2 O2

6 Plant Evolution First plants evolved from organisms similar to today’s multicellular green algae.(from kingdom protista)

7 Bryophytes Life cycle that depends on water so the sperm can swim to the egg. Lack vascular tissue, so they obtain water through osmosis (this limits their height) Includes mosses, liverworts, & hornworts

8 Tracheophytes: seedless vascular plants
Includes club mosses, horsetails and ferns Tracheid: new cell type that specializes in water transport. -Hollow cells with thick walls that resist pressure. Xylem: primary fluid transport Phloem: transport nutrients and carbs

9 Tracheophytes Seedless vascular plants
Contain xylem & phloem (vascular tissue) Xylem – carries water up from the roots Phloem – transports products of photosynthesis

10 Tracheophytes Have roots, stems, and leaves with veins
Include club mosses, horsetails, and ferns. Ferns have rhizomes & fronds with sori Rhizomes – fern stems Fronds – fern leaves Sori – fern spores

11 Spermatophytes Seed Plants
Have adaptations that allow them to reproduce without water Flowers or cones Transfer of sperm by pollination Protection of embryos in seeds Two types: Gymnosperms Angiosperms

12 Gymnosperms Bear their seeds directly on the surface of cones
Means “naked seeds” Include conifers, ginkgo, cycads, and gnetophytes

13 Angiosperms Flowering plants
Bear seeds within ovaries which surround and protect the seed. Two types: Monocot Dicot

14 Monocots All monocots have the following characteristics:
Single cotyledon – seed leaf Parallel veins Flower petals in multiples of 3 Vascular tissue scattered throughout the stem Fibrous roots

15 Dicots All dicots have the following characteristics:
Double cotyledon seeds Branched veins Flower petals in multiples of 4 or 5 Vascular tissue arranged in a ring Taproot

16 Angiosperm Life Spans Annuals – complete life cycle in one growing season Biennials – complete life cycle in two years First year: grow roots, short stems and sometimes leaves Second year: grow new stems, leaves, produce flowers and seeds Perennials – live many years

17 Plant Structure Flower Male reproductive structures - Stamen
Female reproductive structures - Carpal

18 Root Function Anchor plant to the ground
Absorb water and dissolved nutrients from the soil Water – through root pressure Nutrients – through active transport

19 Types of Roots Fibrous: root formed in bundles where it is not possible to determine the primary root. Cauline: roots that shoot from the stem. Tubercular: root in the form of a tubercle. Taproot: root that grows vertically into the earth.


21 Plant Growth Most plants grow and produce new cells at the tips of their roots and stems for as long as they live. Meristematic tissue – cluster of tissue responsible for continuing growth throughout the plant’s lifetime.

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