2 Plant Characteristics EukaryoticMulticellularCell walls made of celluloseDevelop from multicellular embryosCarry out photosynthesisContain chlorophyll a & bReproduce by alternation of generations
3 Plant Adaptations to Land Solutions:Roots absorb H2O & mineralsLignin & cellulose in cell wallsVascular Transport SystemWaxy cuticle & stomata with guard cellsPollen containing spermProblems:Need mineralsGravityIncrease in Height for LightAdaptations for Drier environmentReproduction
6 Plant EvolutionFirst plants evolved from organisms similar to today’s multicellular green algae.(from kingdom protista)
7 BryophytesLife cycle that depends on water so the sperm can swim to the egg.Lack vascular tissue, so they obtain water through osmosis (this limits their height)Includes mosses, liverworts, & hornworts
8 Tracheophytes: seedless vascular plants Includes club mosses, horsetails and fernsTracheid: new cell type that specializes in water transport.-Hollow cells with thick walls that resist pressure.Xylem: primary fluid transportPhloem: transport nutrients and carbs
9 Tracheophytes Seedless vascular plants Contain xylem & phloem (vascular tissue)Xylem – carries water up from the rootsPhloem – transports products of photosynthesis
10 Tracheophytes Have roots, stems, and leaves with veins Include club mosses, horsetails, and ferns.Ferns have rhizomes & fronds with soriRhizomes – fern stemsFronds – fern leavesSori – fern spores
11 Spermatophytes Seed Plants Have adaptations that allow them to reproduce without waterFlowers or conesTransfer of sperm by pollinationProtection of embryos in seedsTwo types:GymnospermsAngiosperms
12 Gymnosperms Bear their seeds directly on the surface of cones Means “naked seeds”Include conifers, ginkgo, cycads, and gnetophytes
13 Angiosperms Flowering plants Bear seeds within ovaries which surround and protect the seed.Two types:MonocotDicot
14 Monocots All monocots have the following characteristics: Single cotyledon – seed leafParallel veinsFlower petals in multiples of 3Vascular tissue scattered throughout the stemFibrous roots
15 Dicots All dicots have the following characteristics: Double cotyledon seedsBranched veinsFlower petals in multiples of 4 or 5Vascular tissue arranged in a ringTaproot
16 Angiosperm Life SpansAnnuals – complete life cycle in one growing seasonBiennials – complete life cycle in two yearsFirst year: grow roots, short stems and sometimes leavesSecond year: grow new stems, leaves, produce flowers and seedsPerennials – live many years
18 Root Function Anchor plant to the ground Absorb water and dissolved nutrients from the soilWater – through root pressureNutrients – through active transport
19 Types of RootsFibrous: root formed in bundles where it is not possible to determine the primary root. Cauline: roots that shoot from the stem. Tubercular: root in the form of a tubercle. Taproot: root that grows vertically into the earth.
21 Plant GrowthMost plants grow and produce new cells at the tips of their roots and stems for as long as they live.Meristematic tissue – cluster of tissue responsible for continuing growth throughout the plant’s lifetime.