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Presentation on theme: "Plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plants

2 Multicellular eukaryotes
Cell walls made of cellulose Develop from multicellular embryos Carry out photosynthesis using Chlorophyll a & b Most are autotrophs Some are parasites

3 Plant Life Cycle 2 phases that alternate: Dipoloid Haploid
Known as alternation of generations

4 Mitosis & meiosis alternate to produce 2 types of reproductive cells
Gametes Haploid phase is called a gametophyte Spores Diploid phase called sporophyte

5 Survival In order to survive, plants need: sunlight water and minerals
gas exchange transport of water and nutrients throughout the plant body

6 Evolution of Plants The first plants evolved from an organism similar to the multicellular green algae living today The oldest known plant fossils, about 450 million years old, are similar to today’s mosses

7 Division of the Plant Kingdom
Plants are divided into four groups based on these features: water-conducting tissues seeds flowers

8 Evolutionary Relationships Among Plants
Flowering plants Cone-bearing plants Ferns and their relatives Flowers; Seeds enclosed in fruit Mosses and their relatives This cladogram shows the evolutionary relationships among the various groups of plants. The four main groups of living plants are mosses and their relatives, ferns and their relatives, cone-bearing plants, and flowering plants. Seeds Water-conducting (vascular) tissue Green algae ancestor

9 Seed plants are divided into two groups:
Gymnosperms bear seeds directly on the surfaces of cones. Angiosperms, or flowering plants, bear seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seed

10 Adaptations that allow seed plants to reproduce without water include:
flowers or cones the transfer of sperm by pollination the protection of embryos in seeds

11 The male gametophyte is contained in a tiny structure called a pollen grain
This transfer of pollen is called pollination.

12 Seeds A seed is an embryo of a plant that is encased in a protective covering and surrounded by a food supply. An embryo is an organism in its early stage of development. The seed coat surrounds and protects the embryo and keeps contents of the seed from drying out.


14 Angiosperms The majority of living plant species are flowering plants, or angiosperms Flowers are an evolutionary advantage because they attract animals, which then transport pollen from flower to flower. Flowers contain ovaries, which surround and protect the seeds. After pollination, the ovary develops into a fruit. A fruit is a wall of tissue that surrounds a seed. A fruit protects the seed and aids in its dispersal.

15 There are two classes within the angiosperms— monocots and dicots
Monocots and dicots are named for the number of seed leaves, or cotyledons, in the plant embryo. Monocots have one seed leaf, and dicots have two. A cotyledon is the first leaf or the first pair of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant


17 Life Cycles There are three categories of plant life spans: annual, biennial, and perennial. Annuals are plants that complete a life cycle in one growing season. Biennials complete their life cycle in two years. In the first year, they germinate and grow roots, short stems, and sometimes leaves. In the second year, they grow new stems and leaves, produce flowers and seeds, and die. Perennials live for more than two years.

18 Plant Structure The three principal organs of seed plants are roots, stems, and leaves. These organs perform functions such as the transport of nutrients, protection, and coordination of plant activities.

19 Roots: absorb water and dissolved nutrients.
anchor plants in the ground. protect the plant from harmful soil bacteria and fungi.

20 Stems provide: a support system for the plant body.
a transport system that carries nutrients. a defense system that protects the plant against predators and disease

21 Leaves: are a plant’s main photosynthetic systems. increase the amount of sunlight plants absorb. Adjustable pores conserve water and let oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and exit the leaf.

22 Plants consist of three main tissue systems:
dermal tissue vascular tissue ground tissue


24 Vascular Tissue Conduct water and nutrients throughout the plant
The first vascular plants contained tracheids which are cells specialized to conduct water. Tracheids make up xylem, a transport subsystem that carries water from the roots to every part of a plant. Phloem transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis

25 Both xylem and phloem can move fluids through the plant body, even against the force of gravity
Xylem moves water Phloem moves food

26 Roots The two main types of roots are:
taproots, which are found mainly in dicots carrots fibrous roots, which are found mainly in monocots grasses

27 The most important nutrients plants need include:
nitrogen phosphorus potassium magnesium calcium

28 Root pressure forces water through the vascular cylinder and into the xylem
Root pressure is the starting point for movement of water through the vascular system of the entire plant.

29 Stems Stems have three important functions:
they produce leaves, branches and flowers they hold leaves up to the sunlight they transport substances between roots and leaves

30 Leaves The structure of a leaf is optimized for absorbing light and carrying out photosynthesis

31 Leaf Structure . Simple leaf Compound leaf Blade Leaflet Petiole Bud
Most of a leaf consists of a blade attached to the stem by a petiole. The blade of a simple leaf (left) can be different shapes. In a compound leaf (right), the blade is divided into many separate leaflets. Simple leaf Leaflet Petiole Bud Compound leaf Stem Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

32 Stomata are porelike openings in the underside of the leaf that allow carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse into and out of the leaf. Guard cells are specialized cells that control the opening and closing of stomata by responding to changes in water pressure.

33 Transpiration is the loss of water through its leaves
Plants keep their stomata open just enough to allow photosynthesis to take place but not so much that they lose an excessive amount of water

34 Reproduction Reproduction in gymnosperms takes place in cones, which are produced by a mature sporophyte plant. Gymnosperms produce two types of cones: pollen cones and seed cones

35 Meiosis Fertilization

36 Flowers Flowers are reproductive organs that are composed of four kinds of specialized leaves: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.

37 Sepals enclose the bud before it opens and protect the flower while it is developing. Flowers are reproductive organs that include sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. Sepal

38 Petals attract insects and other pollinators to the flower.
Petals are often brightly colored and are found just inside the sepals. Petals attract insects and other pollinators to the flower. Petal Flowers are reproductive organs that include sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.

39 The male parts of a flower consist of an anther and a filament, which together make up the stamen. Anther Stamen Filament Flowers are reproductive organs that include sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.

40 An anther is an oval sac where meiosis takes place, producing pollen grains.

41 The filament is a long, thin stalk that supports an anther.

42 The innermost floral parts are carpels, also called pistils, which produce the female gametophytes.
Stigma Carpel Style Flowers are reproductive organs that include sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. Ovary

43 Each carpel has a broad base forming an ovary.
The ovary contains one or more ovules where female gametophytes are produced. Flowers are reproductive organs that include sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. Ovary Ovule

44 The narrow stalk of the carpel is the style.

45 At the top of the style is the stigma—a sticky portion where pollen grains frequently land.

46 Parts of a Typical Flower
Stigma Anther Stamen Filament Carpel Style Ovary Ovary Petal Sepal Ovule

47 Reproduction in angiosperms takes place within the flower
Reproduction in angiosperms takes place within the flower. Following pollination and fertilization, the seeds develop inside protective structures

48 This illustration shows the life cycle of an iris
This illustration shows the life cycle of an iris. The developing seeds of a flowering plant are protected and nourished inside the ovary, which is located at the base of the flower. Reproduction in angiosperms takes place within the flower. After pollination, the seeds of angiosperms develop inside protective structures.

49 Seeds are dispersed by animals, wind, and water.
Seeds dispersed by animals are typically contained in fleshy, nutritious fruits. Environmental factors such as temperature and moisture can cause a seed to end dormancy and germinate


51 Seed Germination in Monocots Dicots have have 1 Cotyledon 2 Cotyledons
that that Remains with the seed Emerge above ground Remain below ground

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