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14: THE TEACHING OF GRAMMAR  Should grammar be taught?  When? How? Why?  Grammar teaching: Any strategies conducted in order to help learners understand,

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Presentation on theme: "14: THE TEACHING OF GRAMMAR  Should grammar be taught?  When? How? Why?  Grammar teaching: Any strategies conducted in order to help learners understand,"— Presentation transcript:

1 14: THE TEACHING OF GRAMMAR  Should grammar be taught?  When? How? Why?  Grammar teaching: Any strategies conducted in order to help learners understand, comprehend, and produce and internalize it  Presentation & Practice; Practice  Discovery of grammatical rules  Exposure to target structures  Corrective feedback  Krashen (1981); Corder (1967)  Naturalistic L2 acquisition: natural order and sequence of acquisition (universal order)  Grammar syllabus

2 Teaching Grammar …….. Other studies (e.g. Pica, 1983; Long, 1983) Naturalistic learners vs instructed learners  What Grammar should be taught  Linguistic forms and meanings; errors made by learners  What grammatical features should be taught  Only simple grammar rules  Metalinguistic knowledge  Whole grammar  Ellis (2006)  Contrastive analysis: L1 & L2  Marked (frequent, basic) and Unmarked forms (infrequent, unnatural)

3 Teaching Grammar…………  WHEN?  Early stages:  to avoid incorrect habit,  learners lacking of L2 knowledge,  understanding grammatical features facilitates language learning  Meaning first and grammar later (interlanguage)  Immersion program-> proficiency for fluent communication  Ready made chunks  Task-based approach

4 Teaching Grammar ………  HOW?  Massed: short period  Distributed: over a longer period  Intensive: a single or a pair (contrasted) of structures  Time consuming  Less time for practice  Extensive: a whole of structures  Large number of grammatical structures  Errors analyses  May not provide in-depth practice

5 Teaching Grammar……..  EXPLICIT GRAMMATICAL KNOWLEDGE  Awareness of how language features work and possess metalinguistic ability  Krashen: use the knowledge when they monitor  Dekeyser (1998): explicit becomes implicit when learners have plentiful communicative practice  IMPLICIT GRAMMATICAL KNOWLEDGE  Kept unconsciously  Available in fluent communication  Competence in L2 as the result of implicit knowledge  When learners perform language tasks: which knowledge to employ??????

6 Teaching Grammar ………  SEPARATE LESSONS  Focus on Forms  Focus on accuracy  INTEGRATED INTO COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITIES  Focus on Meaning to form communicative activity  Planned: predetermined grammatical structures  Incidental: learners’ linguistic needs  In communication, Learners should be able to connect grammatical forms to meanings  One approach to teach grammar  The acquisition of L2 grammar is complex  Personal theory development?

7 PERSPECTIVES ON TEACHING FOUR SKILLS  CURRENT PERSPECTIVES (1990s/2000s) on L2 teaching  Decline of methods  Roles of teachers and learners  Learning goals (i.e. social, cultural, political)  Situational language pedagogy  Prescribed set of classroom procedures  Bottom-up approach and top-down approach  Accuracy and fluency  Bottom-up and Top-down approach in teaching 4 skills

8 Teaching Four Skills ………  Knowledge About English (refinement in language theories  Corpus analyses to identify variations of language features: i.e. morphological, syntactic, pragmatic, and discoursal  EFL learners dealing with linguistic features in Native Speaker Corpora  Integrated and Multiple Skills Taught in Context  All communicative elements should be integrated: e.g. in conversation -> speaking and comprehending, Oral skills-> pronunciation and vocabulary  Models of integrated teaching: e.g. task-based, genre-based, content-based (i.e. in EFL situations)

9 Teaching Four Skills…….  TEACHING SPEAKING  Type of Subskills in Oral Production: e.g. content and sound system, morphosyntax, lexis, discourse for accuracy and fluency  Speaking and Pronunciation  Native-like accent -> intelligibility  Issues of segmental clarity: e.g. articulation, word stress, pauses  Intonation and pronunciation taught in context  Speaking and Pragmalinguistic skills  Social status, social distance, and spoken register (casual and formal)  Communicative strategies, discourse, conversational routines

10 Teaching Four Skills ……  TEACHING LISTENING  Linguistic Aspects -> Top-down processing (i.e. activating schemata: cultural constructs, topic familiarity, discourse clues, pragmatic conventions )  Authentic listening constraints: colloquial expressions, incomplete sentences, ellipses  Techniques: i.e. Prelistening, making predictions, listening intensively, making inferences  Integrated Approaches: Task-based, Content-based instruction  Teaching Strategies: Metacognitive strategy, Top- down and Bottom-up

11 Teaching Four Skills ………  TEACHING READING  Bottom-up and Top-down Skills  Bottom-up: cognitive subskills (i.e. word recognition, spelling, phonological processing, morphosyntactic parsing, lexical recognition  Reading fundamentals placed before Top-down instruction  Reading and Vocabulary  5000 base words  Teaching vocabulary: avoid incidental learning!, interest, deliberate intention, repetition, words used in context

12 Teaching Four Skills …….  TEACHING WRITING  L2 Writing Pedagogy requires systematic and special approaches (i.e. cultural, rhetorical, linguistic differences of L1 and L2)  L2 writers have limited lexical and syntactic repertoire  Bottom-up and Top-down skills  Explicit pedagogy in grammatical and lexical features  Teaching Writing to Young Learners  Proficiency in spelling, letter, and word recognition  Emotive writing -> complex tasks

13 Teaching Four Skills ……..  Integrated and Content-based Teaching of Writing  Grammar and vocabulary in conjunction with reading of genres  How grammar and lexis employed in texts  Situational variables used in contexts: e-mail messages, news reports, academic writing

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