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Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)

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Presentation on theme: "Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
Communicative Competence Is a term which was appeared firstly in Hymes’ article, “on communicative competence” Is what coined by Hymes to criticise the linguistic competence which raised by Chomsky (1965) In Chomsky’s interpretation, the linguistic theory was divided into two parts: linguistic competence and linguistic performance The linguistic competence refers to underlying linguistic knowledge, while the linguistic performance refers to actual linguistic ability

2 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
Based on Chomsky’s linguistic theory, the goal of learning language is composing grammatically correct sentences, i.e. learning of the accuracy of language For Hymes, Chomsky’s linguistic theory which only stressed on the grammatical accuracy of a language is insufficient – it lacks the consideration of using language as communication in real life Hymes argued that grammatical competence is only a part of a language, in which communication and culture should be also concerned - language should be taught and learnt as communication

3 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
Communicative competence then is what a language speaker needs to know in order to be communicatively competent in a community In Hymes’ communicative competence, It emphasises on the language-in-use An ideal language speaker needs not only to know the structure of sentences of a language correctly, but also the use of these sentences in a specific social context appropriately appropriacy becomes a very key word

4 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
Hymes’ communicative competence has huge impact on language teaching and learning Before Hymes raised the notion of communicative competence, the language was seen as only the grammatical matter by linguistics and educational practitioners In 1970s, under the influence of Hymes’ notion of communicative competence, the dimension of language was extended and considered to include aspects of communication and culture A new teaching approach named ‘communicative language teaching’ was developed

5 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
Teaching and learning in CLT Whenever possible, ‘authentic language’ – language as it is used in a real context – should be introduced The language as it is used in authentic communication may be coached on strategies for how to improve their comprehension The target language is a vehicle for classroom communication, not just the object of study, while judicious use of the students’ native language is permitted

6 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
Students are expected to use the language a great deal through communicative activities Learning to use language forms appropriately is the essential part of communicative competence Therefore, students should be given an opportunity to express their ideas and opinions Activities that are truly communicative, have 3 features in common – information gap, choice and feedback

7 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
Information gap An information gap exists when one person in an exchange knows something the other person does not Games are important because they have certain features in common with real communicative events – there is a purpose to exchange Errors are tolerated and seen as a natural outcome of the development of communication skills The students’ errors may not be corrected when an activity is working on fluency, but returned to at a later point

8 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
Choice In communicating, a speaker has a choice not only about what to say, but also how to say it One function can have many different linguistic forms; also a linguistic form may serve different functions in different situations. The social context of the communicative event is essential in giving meaning to the utterances Since the focus of the course is on real language use, a variety of linguistic forms are presented together The grammar and vocabulary that the students learn follow from the function, situational context, and the roles of the interlocutors

9 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
Feedback True communication is purposeful – a speaker can thus evaluate whether or not his purpose has been achieved based up the information he receives from his listener Just as oral communication is seen to take place through negotiation between speaker and listener, so too is meaning thought to be derived from the written word through an interaction between the reader and the writer Being able to figure out the speaker’s or writer’s intentions is part of being communicatively competence

10 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
Teacher and Learners The teacher acts as a facilitator in setting up communicative activities and as an advisor during the activities The teacher may be a ‘co-communicator’ engaging in the communicative activity along with students Students are communicators who are actively engaged in negotiating meaning – in trying to make themselves understood and in understanding others

11 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
Classroom Interaction When the teacher acts as a facilitator, he may not always himself interact with students When the teacher is a co-communicator, he may interact with students in establishing and promoting communication between and along the students Students interact a great deal with one another in various ways – pairs, triads, small groups, and whole group

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