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Dr. Dana Ferris University of California, Davis PREPARING TEACHERS TO TREAT ERRORS IN THE K-12 CLASSROOM.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Dana Ferris University of California, Davis PREPARING TEACHERS TO TREAT ERRORS IN THE K-12 CLASSROOM."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Dana Ferris University of California, Davis PREPARING TEACHERS TO TREAT ERRORS IN THE K-12 CLASSROOM

2  Provide a critical overview of what K-12 ESOL and content- area teachers of English learners need to know about treating student errors in writing. OBJECTIVE

3  Provide research and perspectives on the usefulness of corrective feedback in second language writing  Understand types of errors made by English learners (ELs)  Understand how to respond to student errors and the issues surrounding corrective feedback  Suggest strategies, methods, and options for responding to student errors  Provide suggestions for aiding ELs’ development of academic language in writing OVERVIEW OF MODULE

4  High stakes tests are moving beyond multiple choice formats to include short, extended, and essay-response questions.  New national common core standards integrate literacy development in all content classes, stressing the importance of expository writing skills in content-area classes.  Teachers of English learners need to understand the issues unique to second language writing and how to appropriately address them. WHY THIS ISSUE IS IMPORTANT

5  Background of corrective feedback  Is corrective feedback useful?  Types of corrective feedback UNDERSTANDING THE ISSUE

6  Errors are a normal part of language acquisition  ELs may stall (“fossilize”) in their acquisition of particular language structures  Expert intervention (feedback and instruction) can help ELs improve in written accuracy over time WHAT THE RESEARCH SAYS

7  Errors with nouns (articles, plurals)  Errors with verbs (tense, form)  Subject-verb agreement  Word choice  Sentence structure (word order, missing/extra words)  Errors also typical of native English speakers (punctuation, sentence boundaries, spelling, other mechanics) WHAT TYPES OF ERRORS L2 WRITERS COMMONLY MAKE

8  Serious/global errors that impede readers’ comprehension  Patterns of frequent errors  Stigmatizing errors that cause readers to “label” the writer as “ESL” WHAT ERRORS TO TREAT

9  Throughout the writing process, but with different emphases at various stages:  Early stages: general indications of 1-2 patterns of error to watch for (“As you revise, pay attention to plural endings on your nouns…”)  Intermediate stages: more detailed, text-specific feedback on several patterns of error  Final versions: feedback on remaining errors for student analysis and to monitor for future papers WHEN TO TREAT AN ERROR

10  Strategies  Options for feedback HOW SHOULD INSTRUCTORS TREAT ERRORS

11  Direct feedback (teacher makes the correction)  Indirect feedback (teacher points out the error but asks student to make the correction)  Comprehensive feedback (correcting all errors you see)  Selective feedback (marking only patterns of several specific error types)  Explicit feedback (indicating error type and/or rule reminder)  Implicit feedback (underlining or highlighting error) STRATEGIES

12  Selective feedback early in writing process; comprehensive feedback on final drafts (for future reference)  Reduce amount of teacher feedback as term progresses; require more student involvement  Use peer- and self-editing workshops in class to build student autonomy  Combine direct/indirect feedback (e.g., direct feedback for lexical errors such as prepositions, indirect for errors students should be able to correct)  More direct feedback for lower-proficiency learners; more indirect feedback for advanced learners  Ask students to revise/rewrite texts and/or complete reflection/analysis exercises after receiving corrections OPTIONS

13  Vocabulary  Grammar  Style  Developing independence in writing  Self-editing strategies for ELs DEVELOPING L2 STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC LANGUAGE

14  Teach vocabulary analysis strategies through classroom intensive reading activities  Require and facilitate extensive reading  Encourage or require self-directed vocabulary learning (note cards or journals)  Help students understand the importance of accurate and effective lexical choices in writing  Teach students to analyze and revise vocabulary choices in their own writing VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

15  Teach mini-lessons on patterns of error common to the whole class  Go beyond “error”: Build awareness and control of grammatical structures elicited by specific writing tasks (e.g., tense shifts for narratives, appropriate use of passive voice)  Follow any grammar instruction with immediate application to students’ own writing (peer- and self-editing workshops) GRAMMAR INSTRUCTION

16  Work on writing style with more advanced learners who have generally good linguistic control/repertoires  Discuss register, genre, and audience in relation to specific writing tasks  Teach basic distinctions between casual and formal writing styles (e.g., use of contractions, first/second person, “casual” punctuation such as dashes or parentheses, use of sentence fragments)  Help students become aware of vocabulary choices considered informal or cliché STYLE

17  Raise awareness about the effects of error on real-world audiences  Emphasize the importance of attending to accuracy, especially in final stages of text production  Include accountability mechanisms (through grading) and follow-up (reflection/analysis activities, rewriting/revision, charting, etc.)  Teach self-editing strategies (next) AUTONOMY

18  Proofreading  Using word-processing tools effectively  Reading aloud  Adequate time & distance from writing content  Analyzing word choice, sentence structure, and style  Other editors (working effectively with peers and other readers)  Awareness of weaknesses/error patterns; independent study & practice resources STRATEGIES FOR SELF-EDITING

19  Accurate and effective use of language is a critical element of successful writing  Most ELs have not had enough exposure to language/text to have complete control of structure/mechanics  Carefully provided feedback and instruction can empower students and build their confidence  Teachers may need to study grammar/language and writing pedagogy to provide feedback and instruction effectively CONCLUSION

20  Bitchener, J., & Ferris, D. (2012). Written corrective feedback in second language acquisition and writing. New York: Routledge.  Ferris, D.R. (2011). Treatment of error in second language student writing (2 nd Ed.). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.  Folse, K.S. (2004). Vocabulary myths: Applying second language research to classroom teaching. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.  Hedgcock, J.S., & Ferris, D.R. (2009). Teaching readers of English: Students, texts, and contexts. New York: Routledge.  Reid, J.M. (Ed.) (2008). Writing myths: Applying second language research to classroom teaching. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. REFERENCES

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