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Topic: Learning and teaching activities

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1 Topic: Learning and teaching activities
Objectives Making a comparison between traditional learning and teaching activities and communicative ones

2 Step One Elicit all kinds of classroom activities from students
Lesson One Making a comparison between traditional learning and teaching activities and communicative ones Pre-task activities Step One Elicit all kinds of classroom activities from students Step Two Categorize the activities While-task activities Step Three Tell the characteristics of traditional activities and communicative activities. Step Four Tell the use of different activities Post-task activities Step Five Give a feedback to students

3 Activities and Exercises
Real communication activities Practice communication activities Shaping exercises Focusing exercises

4 Learning and teaching activities
In the Grammar-translation Method In the Direct Method In the Audiolingual Method In the Communicative Approach In the Activities-based Approach

5 In the Grammar-translation Method
Characteristics: 1.  Grammar is taught in deductive way . 2. Grammar analysis, explanation and translation serve the purpose of mastering grammatical rules. 3. Reading and writing are the major focus, little or no systematic attention is paid to speaking or listening. 4.The sentence is the basic unit of language teaching and learing. 5. Accuracy rather than fluency is emphasized.

6 Techniques: Reading Translation Deductive teaching of grammar
Analysis and comparison Memorization Reading comprehension questions Written work

7 In the Direct Method Characteristics:
1, The meaning of a new target language word or phrase is presented by relating the expression directly to objects visual aids, or to familiar words in the foreign language wherever possible. 2. Grammar was taught inductively. 3. correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized. 4.Reading and writing exercises are based upon what the students practice orally first. 5.The target language is used exclusively in the language classroom as means of instruction and communication. The use of the first language and of translation as a technique is completely avoided.

8 Techniques: Direct association Question and answer exercises
Conversation practice Error correction Dictation Inductive teaching of grammar Listening comprehension tasks Graded composition

9 In the Audiolingual Method
Characteristics: 1.Dialogues and drills form the basis in audiolingual classroom practice. 2.Grammar is induced from examples, explicit grammar rules are not provided. 3.Cultural information is contextualized in the dialogs or presented by the teacher. 4.Reading and written works is based upon the oral work they did earlier. 5. Use Of language laboratory.

10 Techniques Repetition drill Simple substitution drill
Transformation drill Question-and-answer drill Expansion drill Clause combination drill Backward build-up drill Chain drill Mini-dialogue Completion Use of minimal pairs

11 In the Communicative Approach
Characteristics: 1.Learner-centred 2. Use not usage are emphasized 3. Oracy Interaction 5. Fluency Authenticity 7. Discourse Skills integration 9. Information gap 10. Immediate feedback 11. Choice of language 12. Eclecticism

12 Types of communicative activities:
Functional communicative activities Social interactional activities

13 Functional communicative activities
1.       learners comparing sets of pictures and noting similarities and differences. 2.       Working out a likely sequence of events in a set of pictures. 3.       Discovering missing features in a map or picture 4.       Picture strip story 5.       Following direction 6.       Draw a picture or shape according to given instruction. 7.       Solving problems from shared clues 8.       Scrambled sentences 9.       Language games

14 Social interactional activities
1.       conversation 2.       Discussion 3.       Dialogue 4.       Role play 5.       Simulation 6.       Skits 7.       Improvisation 8.       Debates

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