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Teaching Grammar and Language Functions

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1 Teaching Grammar and Language Functions
MA in English Language Teaching NYME BTK 2011 Foki Lívia

2 Definitions “At its heart, then, grammar consists of two fundamental ingredients – syntax and morphology – and together they help us to identify grammatical forms which serve to enhance and sharpen the expression of meaning.” Batstone, Product and process: Grammar in the second language classroom. In Bygate, M., Tonkyn, A. and Williams, E. (eds.) Grammar and the Language Teacher. pp London: Prentice Hall. 1994b:4

3 Definitions “Grammar is a set of rules that define how words are combined or changed to form acceptable units of meaning within language.” Ur, A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge: CUP. 1996:87

4 Definitions “…grammar(ing) is one of the dynamic linguistic processes of pattern formulation in language, which can be used by humans for making meaning in context-appropriate ways.” Larsen-Freeman, Teaching Language: From Grammar to Grammaring. Boston: Thomson, Heinle. 2003:142

5 Purpose of grammar teaching
To enable learners to use linguistic forms accurately meaningfully appropriately to achieve communicative competence

6 Communicative Competence
Chomsky’s competence: The native speaker's perfect knowledge of the grammatical rules, lexis and the sound system knowing what is grammatically correct. Hymes communicative competence The ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of a language in order to form grammatically correct sentences but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom.

7 Communicative Competence
Canale and Swain Linguistic Sociolinguistic Discourse Strategic

8 Theories and approaches related to grammar teaching
The Grammar Translation Method “grammar translation approaches the language first through detailed analysis of its grammar rules, followed by application of this knowledge to the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language. It hence views language learning as consisting of little more than memorizing rules and facts in order to understand and manipulate the morphology and syntax of the foreign language” (Richards and Rogers,1986:3).

9 Theories and approaches related to grammar teaching
The Audiolingual Method Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills, grammar explanation is not given. Inductive explanation of grammar is preferred. Structures are taught one at a time and then sequenced based on contrastive analysis

10 Theories and approaches related to grammar teaching
The Communicative Approach Distinction is made between acquisition and learning. Language should be learnt by experiencing it meaningfully as a tool for communication. Problems occur in contexts where the availability of the communicative use of the language is limited, and exams require a high level of grammatical accuracy.

11 Processes involved in grammar teaching and learning
Comprehensible input The learner progresses along a natural order when receiving input that is one step beyond the learner’s current stage of linguistic competence (i+1) (Krashen's Input Hypothesis) Consciousness-raising/awareness raising An approach to the teaching of grammar in which instruction is viewed as a way of raising the learner’s awareness of grammatical features of the language. This approach is contrasted with traditional approaches to the teaching of grammar, in which the goal is to instill correct grammatical patterns and habits directly.

12 Processes involved in grammar teaching and learning
Noticing conscious intake of new language noticing is an interface between explicit and implicit knowledge: conscious intake of new language noticing the form is facilitated when the input is meaningful to the learner  Inductive and deductive approach inductive approach the rule is inferred through some form of guided discovery. deductive approach the rule is presented and the language is produced based on the rule.

13 Processes involved in grammar teaching and learning
Declarative and procedural knowledge Declarative knowledge (explicit) is available to consciousness and can be used as a set of instructions to guide behaviour through interpretative, problem-solving or analogy-forming procedures Procedural knowledge (implicit) is not conscious and only comes about by repeated use of declarative knowledge in productions Input and intake Input: language resources, textbooks, materials, and classroom discourse that are used to initiate the language learning process. Intake :that part of the input that has actually been processed and turned to knowledge of some kind.

14 The PPP lesson Presentation stage:
Presentation - Practice – Production Presentation stage: - learners receive input concerning a certain language phenomenon through various presentation techniques the teacher leads the learners to notice the language form in focus General model for introducing new grammar: FORM - FUNCTION - MEANING lead-in elicitation highlighting form and pronunciation accurate reproduction concept checking

15 Controlled practice-drilling
comprises a series of activities which can be seen as progressing on a control cline. At the controlled end the focus is on the form, at the free end the focus is on the meaning Controlled practice-drilling Free practice Production Free language use is fostered by the use of Communicative/information gap activities.

16 Principles of teaching grammar
Grammar should be taught frequently and in little bits with a lot of recycling and revision Grammar should be taught systematically with enough flexibility to react to learners' needs. Grammar should be presented and practiced in meaning-oriented activities. A combination of inductive and deductive presentations should be used. Limited use of the L1 should be made possible. Problem-solving grammar activities should be used to develop learners' active knowledge of grammar. Elicitation and corrective feedback .should be used

17 Bibliography Bygate, M., Tonkyn, A. and Williams, E. (1994)(eds.) Grammar and the Language Teacher. London: Prentice Hall. Scrivener, J. (2010) Teaching English Grammar. Macmillan. Thornbury, S. (1999) How to Teach Grammar. Longman Thornbury, S (2001) Uncovering Grammar. Macmillan Heinemann. Ur, P. (1988) Grammar Practice Activities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ur, P. (1996) A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge: CUP.

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