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Proficiency Approach in Teaching Chinese

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Presentation on theme: "Proficiency Approach in Teaching Chinese"— Presentation transcript:

1 Proficiency Approach in Teaching Chinese
Dr. Yu-Lan Lin Boston Public Schools

2 Historical View of Language Teaching
Grammar-Translation Method Direct Method Audio-Lingual Method Cognitive Approach Proficiency Approach Standards-based Approach

3 Krashen’s Input Hypothesis
The acquisition-learning hypothesis The monitor hypothesis The Natural order hypothesis The input hypothesis The affective filter hypothesis

4 The Interlanguage Theory
Interference from the native language Effect of instruction Overgeneralization of rules Strategies in L2 learning Strategies in L2 communication

5 Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development
Learning precedes and contributes to maturation The ‘actual’ and ‘ potential’ development The learner’s Zone of Proximal Development Interaction with others and expansion of cognitive abilities

6 Implications of Research
Comprehensible input Interactive environment Opportunities to negotiate meaning Communicate in the target language Purposeful and meaningful activities Nurturing environment for self-expression

7 Proficiency-based Instruction
Functions: Context Content Accuracy

8 Standards for FL Learning
The Five C goals The Content Standards The Progress Indicators The Learning Scenarios

9 Traditional View of Teaching Chinese
Teaching of Vocabulary Teaching of Grammar Emphasis on the ‘product’ Emphasis on accuracy

10 Traditional Teaching of Language Aspects
Vocabulary list Sentence patterns Explanatory notes Grammar usage Syntactic rules

11 Traditional Chinese Textbooks
Out of communicative contexts Repetitive exercises Manipulations of grammar structures Making sentences based on patterns Fill in the blanks Matching words Memorize vocabulary list

12 Why Traditional Method Doesn’t Work
Language always occurs in context Vocabulary does not lead to conversation Grammar does not guarantee realistic communication Rules of language use are not taught

13 Traditional Methods of Teaching
Structural-behaviorist approach Supply translation One-directional transmission Learners as passive learners Teacher as the authoritative source of knowledge Control external agent for learning

14 Traditional Understanding of What to be Learned
Vocabulary Grammar Four separate skills Learn out of the contexts of language use

15 Traditional Ways of Viewing Learning
Habit formation Memorization Repetitive practice Decontextualized grammatical structures Vocabulary reinforcement Teacher-centered Product of learning

16 Reasons of Traditional Ways of Teaching
Lack of pedagogical training Teaching according to intuition Teaching according to traditional methods Teaching according to how oneself was taught Teaching according to some authority Teaching according to commercially popularized “new” methods

17 Cognitive Approach in Teaching
Focus on creating learning contexts Active use of language Creative use of language Purposeful communication Negotiation of meaning

18 Cognitive Learning Focus
Function Process Meaning Grammar is embedded in learning Design tasks-based learning Content-rich instruction Learners and learning centered Active learning

19 Compare Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches
Communicative Students talk Structure taught functionally Use words meaningfully Use sentences purposefully Non-Communicative T talks T explains voc T analyzes grammar Voc memorization Pattern repetition

20 In Proficiency-based Instruction
T Facilitates students’ learning T provides opportunities for active learning T enables learners to use cognitive strategies T teaches students how to learn T focuses on meaning not on form T starts from text, not voc and grammar

21 Text Selection in Proficiency-based Instruction
Text: authentic, high interest, age-appropriate Logical sequencing of information Identifiable structure: letter, narration, report, editorial, etc. Identifiable structural features that carry meaning Pose reasonable cognitive/linguistic challenges

22 How to Teach Written Texts
On content: main idea, details On the author: what is the author’s purpose of writing On textual features: what is the meaning in each paragraph? Are they related? On context: What context is the text likely to occur?

23 Communicative Competence
Linguistic competence Socio-cultural competence Discourse competence Strategic competence

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