Presentation on theme: "P IAGET ’ S T HEORY OF C OGNITIVE S TAGES How do children develop cognition (thinking, problem solving, memory)? AP PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 9."— Presentation transcript:
P IAGET ’ S T HEORY OF C OGNITIVE S TAGES How do children develop cognition (thinking, problem solving, memory)? AP PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 9
J EAN P IAGET Swiss Psychologist (1896-1980) 1920s - studied the cognitive abilities of children, especially his own 3 kids Concentrated on the errors children make Explained how thought of a child is fundamentally different from adults Discontinuous stage model – children undergo a revolution at each stage, signifies movement to next stage.
C HILDHOOD A DAPTATION As children develop, they must make mental adaptions as they observe and experience the world. A schema is a mental structure we use to organize and simplify our knowledge of the world around us. Assimilation – Fitting new knowledge into mental schemas. Cocker spaniel = dog Collie = dog Accommodation – The process of adjusting old schemas to fit new information and experiences. Cat dog, must form new schemes for cat Cognitive development results from continual interweaving of assimilation and accommodation.
F OUR S TAGES OF C OGNITIVE D EVELOPMENT S TAGE O NE – S ENSORIMOTOR S TAGE (birth – age 2) Concrete Actions – Reflexes, uses senses and motor abilities to learn: looking, touching, hearing, putting things in their mouth. Begin to show deliberate interaction with objects – grabbing, pushing Milestone: Mental Representation – forming internal images of objects and events Object permanence – (Approx. 6 months) Knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ue8y-JVhjS0
S TAGE T WO – P REOPERATIONAL S TAGE (ages 2-6 or 7) Acceleration of the use of symbols and language Pretend Piaget described this stage in terms of what child cannot do: Egocentrism- Seeing the world only from your own point of view, not understanding other’s perspectives http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OinqFgsIbh0&feature=relat ed http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OinqFgsIbh0&feature=relat ed Animistic thinking- thinking inanimate objects have life and mental processes Centration – the inability to take into account more than one factor at a time. Not having the understanding of conservation. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GLj0IZFLKvg Irreversibility- inability to think though a series of events and then mentally reverse the course. Ex: going forwards and backwards in a math problem 7+2=9; 9-2=7 Ex: understanding family relationships (understanding your cousin’s mom is your mom’s sister, and you have the same grandma)
S TAGE T HREE - C ONCRETE O PERATIONAL (ages 7-11) Things are the same even if they change appearance Understand nature of identity Girls, boys, sisters, brother Are capable of conservation, reversible thinking, and cause and effect Conservation- Understanding that physical properties of objects can remain the same even when their form or appearance changes. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gA04ew6Oi9M https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gA04ew6Oi9M Mental Operations- solving problems by manipulating them in your mind. Begin to think logically and rationally Question Santa Claus Limitation: Abstract thought Freedom, democracy, peace, justice
S TAGE F OUR - F ORMAL O PERATIONAL (age 12-adulthood) Capability of abstract, hypothetical reasoning Think about the future Ideas can be classified Can reason about situations they have not experienced – empathy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lw36PpYPPZM &feature=bf_next&list=PL3A2A77133AAF0077
C RITICISMS OF P IAGET Changes in thought are more continuous and gradual rather than jumping from one stage to another Some Children understand far more than Piaget gave them credit for; Some Adults understand less than Piaget gave them credit for Preschoolers are not as egocentric as Piaget Thought Most 3-4 year olds can take another perspective When 4 year olds play with 2 year olds, they simplify their speech Young children understand when others are sad Cognitive development depends on education and culture