Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 Cognitive Development An overviewPiaget’s cognitive development theoryStages of cognitive development and basiccharacteristicsVygotsky’s socio-cultural perspectiveTheir Contribution to teaching and learningImplications of cognitive developmental changes forteaching and learningObjectivesCategorize stages of cognitive development and its implications forteaching-learning.Evaluate cognitive developmental theories of Piaget and Vygotsky.
3 Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Piaget, a Swiss psychologist,described logical thinking andreasoning about complex situationsas the highest form of cognitivedevelopment. He grounded hisinvestigations in the individualchild's manipulation andinteraction with objects in his or her particular environment.The concept of cognitive structure is central tohis theory.
4 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Key conceptsThe developing child’s rational thinking and stages of thought are emphasized.Thoughts are the central focus of development, the primary determinants of children’s actions.
5 Piaget stressed that children actively construct their worlds through two processes Processes of constructionOrganization AdaptationAssimilation Accommodation(incorporate new info.) (adjust to new info.)Equilibration
6 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Thought (birth – 2 years)The infant is able to organize and coordinate sensations withphysical movements.Characteristics:• Children are egocentric.• Children begin to distinguish their actions as causes (casuality).• They achieve object permanence.• Children are able to represent the world through language.
7 What could be some implications for Teachers and Parents?• Provide multiple objects of various sizes, shapes,and colours.• Talk to children and be sensitively responsiveto them.In general, anything can be the most excitingplaything an infant can experience.
8 2. Preoperational Thought (2 – 7 yrs. - Preschool) A transition from primitive to more sophisticated use of symbols.The child does not yet think in an operational way.Sub-stage of Preoperational ThoughtSymbolic thoughtSymbolic function Intuitive thought(2 – 4 yrs.) (4 – 7 yrs.)EgocentrismAnimism
9 Characteristics• Centration/ Centering: It is most clearly evidenced in theirlack of conservation• Children begin to use symbols, such as language, but arenot able to manipulate them.• Transductive reasoning or reasoning from particular toparticular in a non-logical manner• Irreversibility or inability to reverse their thinking• They are intuitive rather than logical at this stage.• realism (ability to slowly distinguish and accept the real world)• artificialism (assumption that everything is a product ofhuman creation)
10 Implications for Teachers and Parents • Provide opportunities for interactions with adults,other children, and materials as they learn throughactive explorations• Encourage manipulation of materials, provide hands-on experiences, engage in activities such as:(a) deferred imitation(imitating animals, activities etc. that are seen earlier)(b) symbolic play (pretend play, e.g. pretending to sleep)(c) drawing;(d) role-plays, etc.
11 3. Concrete Operational Thought (7 – 11 yrs., middle & late childhood)It is made up of operations, mental actions that are reversible. The child shows conservation and classification skills.Characteristics:Skill of Reversibility• Classification skills• Logical reasoning replaces intuitive thought• Ability to understand the number concept (the meaning of numbers)
12 Implications for Teachers and Parents • Children at this stage are capable of representationalthought, but only with the concrete and or tangible.They cannot grasp abstract subtleties.• It is a good idea to use classification games and activities.
13 4. Formal Operational Thought (11/12 plus, adolescence and beyond)More abstract, idealistic and logical thinking appears at this stage.Piaget believed that adolescence become capable of usinghypothetical-deductive reasoning.Characteristics:Adolescent egocentrism - manifested through:Imaginary audience (belief that others areas preoccupied with them as they are)Personal fable (a sense of personal uniquenessand indestructibility).
14 Implications for Teachers and Parents • Provide as many concrete examples beforeasking students to formulate general principles.• Encourage discussions and reasoning.Remember many adolescents and adults neverreach the stage of formal operations.
15 Implications for teaching Vygotsky’s TheoryLev Vygotsky ( )argued that human development occurs in asocio-cultural context.zone of proximal development (ZPD)scaffoldinglanguage and thought develop independentlyand then merge.Implications for teaching• Use ZPD and scaffolding• Encourage use of private speech