2 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget ( ) Swiss psychologist who became leading theorist in 1930’sThese “understandings” are in the form of structures he called schemas
3 Development of Schemas Assimilation - process of taking new information or a new experience and fitting it into an already existing schemaAccommodation - process by which existing schemas are changed or new schemas are created in order to fit new information
4 Piaget’s approach Methods- Discovered that children think in radically different ways than adultsStage Theorist
5 Sensorimotor Stage (birth - 2) Information is gained through the senses and motor actionsIn this stage child perceives and manipulates but does not reasonSymbols become internalized through language development
6 Object PermanenceThe understanding that objects exist independent of one’s actions or perceptions of themAcquired by 6 monthsCan be surprised by disappearance / reappearance of a face (peek-a-boo)
7 Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) Emergence of symbolic thoughtEgocentrism- “ Does your sister have a sister”Lack the concept of conservationAnimismThese are speaker notes
8 ConservationNumberKeywords piaget, conservationFigures from Gray (3e)In conservation of number tests, two equivalent rows of coins are placed side by side and the child says that there is the same number in each row. Then one row is spread apart and the child is again asked if there is the same number in each.
9 ConservationLengthIn conservation of length tests, two same-length sticks are placed side by side and the child says that they are the same length. Then one is moved and the child is again askedif they are the same length.Keywords piaget, conservationFigures from Gray (3e)
10 Conservation Substance mass In conservation of substance tests, two identical amounts of clay are rolled into similar-appearing balls and the child says that they both have the same amount of clay. Then one ball is rolled out and the child is again asked if they have the same amount.Keywords piaget, conservationFigures from Gray (3e)
11 Concrete Operational Stage (7-12 years) Understanding of mental operations leading to increasingly logical thoughtClassification and categorizationLess egocentricInability to reason abstractly or hypothetically
12 Formal Operational Stage (age 12 - adulthood) Hypothetical-deductive reasoningAdolescent egocentrism illustrated by the phenomenon of personal fable and imaginary audience
13 Critique of Piaget’s Theory Underestimates children’s abilitiesUnderestimates the role of the social environmentLack of evidence for qualitatively different stages
14 Information-Processing Perspective Focuses on the mind as a system, analogous to a computer, for analyzing information from the environmentDevelopmental improvements reflectincreased memory, processingnew methods, knowledge
15 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective Emphasized the child’s interaction with the social world (other people) as a cause of developmentlanguage was foundation for social interaction and thoughtPiaget believed language was a byproduct of thought
16 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective Vygotsky - children learn from interactions with other peopleZone of proximal development - what a child can do by interacting with another person, but can’t do alone.