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11 Potatoes & Grains 11.2 Grains.

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Presentation on theme: "11 Potatoes & Grains 11.2 Grains."— Presentation transcript:

1 11 Potatoes & Grains 11.2 Grains

2 Objectives Outline methods to select, receive, and store grains
Describe physical properties of grains Distinguish between various forms of grains Using a variety of recipes and cooking techniques, prepare grains

3 Terms Arborio Germ Pilaf Whole grain Bran Grain Risotto Durum wheat
(ahr-BORE-ee-oh) Germ Pilaf (PEEL-ahf) Whole grain Bran Grain Risotto (ree-ZO-to) Durum wheat Hull Semolina Endosperm Milling process Stone ground

4 Intro Grains: grasses that grow edible seeds
Whole grains: have not been milled Hull: protective coating, or husk that surrounds the grain Bran: tough layer surrounding the endosperm Good source of fiber and B vitamins

5 Intro Endosperm: largest part of grain, and major source of protein and carbohydrate Germ: provides trace of fat and is rich in thiamine

6 Parts of Grain

7 Intro Grains, like beans and potatoes are starchy
Farinaceous (fare-eh-NAY-shus) refers to starchy foods

8 Grains and Processing Processed grains: cut, crushed, rolled, ground are all forms of milling Whole grains: minimally processed, just husk or hull is removed, long cooking times, sometimes parcooked to or precooked Whole grains stored 2-3 weeks (fat/germ)

9 Grains and Processing Refined grains: highly processed, less nutritional value, fewer vitamins, minerals, and fiber (Durum – Semolina) Pearl grain: bran removed Cracked grain: cut into large pieces Meal: fine particles Rolled: cooked and flaked

10 Rice Long-grain rice: four to five times longer than it is wide, fluffy. Example: Basmati, Thai Jasmine Medium-grain: shorter than long- grain, tends to stick. Example: Calrose, brown rice Short-grain: almost round, high starch, sticky. Example: Arborio, sweet rice, glutinous rice Wild rice: seed of a marsh grass, not related, nutty flavor

11 Wheat Wheat berries: whole kernel of wheat, not hulled, polished, or steamed Cracked wheat: made by crushing wheat berries into pieces Bulgur: made from steamed whole wheat berries that are crushed into small pieces (Tabouli) Wheat bran: made from the bran surrounding the wheat kernel

12 Corn Only grain eaten both fresh and dried
Good source of niacin if treated with alkaline solution (lye) Hominy: (HOM-uh-nee) whole dried corn kernel with hull and germ removed Posole: (poh-SOH-leh) whole kernel with germ and bran intact and soaked in alkaline solution Grits: made from cracked hominy

13 Corn Cornmeal: whole corn ground into meal
Masa Harina: cornmeal made from posole Polenta: Italian term for cornmeal

14 Other Grains Oats: available as groats, oatmeal, rolled or old-fashioned, quick cooking, instant, oat flour, oat bran Barley: available as pearled, Scotch, and flour Quinoa: available as whole kernels, high-protein ancient South American grain Rye: available as berries, flakes, and flour

15 Grain Cooking Methods Boiling/steaming
Boiled grains are made by stirring a measured amount of grain into a large pot of boiling salted water Steamed grains are made by stirring a measured amount of grain into a measured amount of liquid and then cooked covered until grain has absorbed liquid

16 Grain Cooking Methods Pilaf Middle east origin Usually rice
First sautéed in pan with oil or butter, then add hot liquid, cover, cook Results in firmer texture

17 Grain Cooking Methods Risotto Italian rice dish made with Arborio rice
First sautéed, small amounts of hot liquid added and stirred until absorbed, process repeated until liquid is used Produces a creamy dish

18 Grain Presentation Hot grain dishes Cold grain salads
Entrée, side dish, appetizer Risotto, polenta Cold grain salads Tabouli, etc.


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