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Chapter 21 Cereal.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 Cereal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21 Cereal

2 Cereal Products Cereals are a major staple food for people throughout the world. East to grow and store Low in cost $$ High-energy value

3 Types of cereal products
Cereals are starchy grains that are suitable to use as foods Examples of cereals: Corn, wheat, rice, oats, barley, rye Cereal products are used to make the following: breakfast foods, flours, meals, breads, pasta products, and starches

4 Grain structure Differ in size and shape, but all have kernels
Kernel is a whole seed of a cereal Has three parts: bran, endosperm, and germ Bran: outer protective covering of the kernel Good source of Vit., and fiber Endosperm: largest part of the kernel Contains most of the starch ad protein, few minerals and a little fiber Holds the food supply the plant uses to grow Germ: reproductive part of the plant Rich in Vit., protein, and fat Smallest part of the kernel

5 Breakfast food Corn, rice, wheat, and oats are popular breakfast foods
Can be made from whole grain, enriched refined grains or a combination of both Can be presweetened, or unsweetened Ready-to-eat or require some amount of cooking Ready-to-eat: puffed, shredded, flaked, granulated, rolled, formed in diff shapes, completely precooked and require no further preparation Require cooking: cracked, crushed, granular, and flaked Require additional liquid and heat Oatmeal and bran are good examples

6 Flour Any grain can be made of flour
Wheat flours are most commonly used because the gluten in wheat flours is superior Many different kinds of flours All-purpose: made from milled and sifted blend of different varieties Consist primarily of the endosperm Can buy bleached (whiter than unbleached) or unbleached No nutritional difference between the two Cake flour: from soft wheat Feels soft and satiny Used for making cakes and other baked products with delicate textures Instant or quick mixing flours: all purpose flour that is specially treated to ………blend easily, Used for gravies and sauces Self-raising flour: all-purpose flour with added leavening agents and salt Must adjust your recipe when baking with this Potato flour: made from cooked potatoes that are dried and ground people on wheat free diets use this type of flour Buckwheat flour: made from sifted buckwheat meal Used for many breakfast items, pancakes Rye flour: sifted rye meal Popular for making breads Soy flour: from ground soybeans Has a strong flavor and must be combined with wheat flour in baked products Rice flour: made by milling white rice White and starchy flour popular in Asia and the Far East

7 Rice Rice (also called white rice) is the white, starchy endosperm of the rice kernel Brown rice has had the hull removed but contains the bran and the germ as well as the endosperm Classified according to length or method of processing Long rice is dry and fluffy when cooked Used with meat Short grain rice is smaller and sticky when cooked Used in puddings, croquettes and rice rings Parboiled or converted rice has been steeped in warm water, ………drained, steamed and dried Improves nutritive value Precooked or instant rice has been cooked, rinsed and dried by ………special process before packaging Can be prepared at home in a short amount of time Wild rice is not really rice Seed of a grass that grows in the marshes of Minnesota and Canada Appealing nutlike flavor Rather expensive

8 Pasta Pasta is nutritious Shaped dough that may or may not be dried
Some examples: macaroni, noodles, spaghetti Dough is made from semolina Produced from the durum wheat Specially grown for pasta making Commercially made by a machine, can be home made by hand

9 Other grain products Cornmeal: made from ground white or yellow corn
Often enriched Hominy: popular food of south Corn minus the hull and germ When broken into pieces it is hominy grits Cornstarch: refined starch obtained from endosperm of corn Used to thickening agent in cooking Pearl barley; whole barley grain minus the hull High in minerals Used in soups Bulgur wheat: wheat that has been cooked, dried, partly de-branned, and cracked Popular in the Middle East Wheat germ: portion of wheat kernel separated during milling High in Vit. and minerals Add to foods for flavor and nutrients Farina: wheat product made by grinding and sifting wheat that has had the bran and most of the germ removed Used to thicken products Cream of wheat is a popular brand

10 Selecting and storing cereal products
Can be stored for extended periods of time without refrigeration

11 Nutritional value of cereal products
Should eat 6-11 serving per day Excellent source of complex carbohydrates Whole grain cereals contribute thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, iron and phosphorus Enriched products have added nutrients to replace the ones stripped in the milling process Federal law requires that some products be enriched

12 Cost of cereal products
Generally inexpensive Convenience products and products with added ingredients tend to cost more Ready to eat cereal cost more than cereals that require cooking All purpose flour generally least expensive type of flour Specialty flours higher in price Pasta products regardless of shape or size are low in cost Fresh made pastas are more expensive Long grain and short grain rice are the lowest priced rice products Wild rice and seasoned rice mixes carry higher price tag

13 Storing cereal products
Store in tightly covered containers in a cool dry place Breakfast foods keep well for up to 3 months Brown and wild rice keep for up to 6 months White rice keeps for up to 1 year

14 Cooking starches Starch is a complex carb. Stored in plants
Cereals grains as well as roots and tubers contain plant cells that are the sources of starch Wheat flour, cornstarch and tapioca are used in cooking

15 Uses of starches Primarily as thickening

16 Food science principles of cooking with starch
Differs in chemical structure and composition All behave differently Some form gels, weak gels, soft gels, some are clear, some are semi clear others are opaque

17 Effects of heat and liquid on starch
Granular starch is unable to dissolve in cold water Dry heat causes starch to lose some of thickening power Dry heat also cause color and flavor changes Dry heat causes dark crust on baked goods Mixing starches with water and heating causes them to become soluble, they absorb water and swell, as heating continues the thickening continues until it reaches gelatinization During cooling starch mixtures form a gel, gel network holds water, if stands too long, water may leak out, this is called syneresis

18 Factors affecting starch thickened mixtures
Temperature, time, agitation and mixing method all affect outcome Temperature: must be warm but not hot Time: depends on the kind of starch used Once gelatinization occurs, cook for short period of time Agitation: gentle stirring helps to keep mixture smooth Aggressive stirring may break down starch granules and make mixture thinner Mixing method: if added directly to hot liquid, they will be lumpy Prevent lumping by coating with fat, combining with sugar or mixing with a cold liquid too form a paste

19 Cooking cereal products:
Cooking cereal products: Food science principles of cooking cereal products Cereals contain large amounts of starch; principles used in cooking starches apply to cooking cereals Should use enough water to allow granules to swell

20 Preparing cooked breakfast cereals
Boil water Coarse, cracked cereals require 4 times their volume of water Flaked cereals (oatmeal) require two times their volume of water Whole grains cook more quickly if first soaked in water to soften bran Whole grains require four times their volume in water Add cereal to boiling water to prevent lumps Cook over low to medium heat Should be smooth and free of lumps

21 Preparing rice White rice requires two time their volume of water
Rice should absorb all the water in the cooking process May cook over direct heat in a double boiler or in oven May substitute milk, bouillon or another liquid for all or part of cooking water Use same preparation method for brown rice as white rice Brown rice takes twice as long to cook unless you soak it first

22 Preparing pasta Cook in boiling water (2 quarts of water for each 8 oz of pasta) Bring water to boil, add pasta gradually Water should not stop boiling; pasta may stick if it does Simmer until tender Do not rinse after draining, water soluble nutrients can be lost by rinsing

23 Microwaving cereal products
Cereal, pasta, rice do not microwave much faster than they cool conventionally Less likely to stick and burn when cooked in microwave Can cook and serve in same dish, saving on cleanup

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