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Chapter 17 Grains, Legumes, Nuts, and Seeds

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1 Chapter 17 Grains, Legumes, Nuts, and Seeds
17.1 Choosing Grains and Grain Products

2 What are Grains? Seeds of plants in the grass family
Every grain kernel is composed of 3 main parts: Germ- tiny embryo that will grow into a new plant Endosperm- food supply for embryo Made up of proteins and starches Takes up most of the inner part of the grain Bran- edible outer protective layer


4 Nutrients in Grains Endosperm is high in complex carbohydrates and proteins Small amount of vitamins and minerals Bran is rich in fiber, B vitamins, some trace minerals Germ provides B vitamins, vitamin E, iron, zinc, other trace minerals, some protein, small amount of saturated fat

5 Grain Processing Outer husk is removed first
Whole grain- entire edible grain kernel is used Contains most of the original nutrients If bran and germ are removed, most of the fiber and nutrients are removed too White flour, breakfast cereals Undergo enrichment- some nutrients are added back Fortification- adding 10% or more of the Daily Value of a specific nutrient back to the product Iron, folic acid Should consume 6-9 oz servings each day

6 Buying Grains and Grain Products
Choose whole grain At least half of your servings should be whole grain Make sure it is enriched or fortified if not whole grain

7 Rice Short grains Medium grains Long grains Almost round in shape
Moist and sticks together when cooked Medium grains Plump, tender, moist Slightly stick together when cooked Long grains Fluffy and stay separated

8 Rice Brown rice- whole grain form White rice- bran and germ removed
Only outer inedible hull is removed Fiber content is 3 times higher than white rice White rice- bran and germ removed Converted rice- parboiled (briefly boiled) to save nutrients before hull is removed Instant rice- precooked and dehydrated Wild rice- not a grain; seed of water grass

9 Other Grains Barley-used in soups and stews, hardy taste
Brans- used in hot cereals or baking, high in fiber Bulgur- wheat kernerls that have been steamed, dried, and crushed; tender and chewy texture Cornmeal- coarsely ground dried corn Couscous- steamed, cracked endosperm of wheat kernel; nutty flavor

10 Other Grains Cracked wheat- crushed wheat berries with a tough and chewy texture Grits- coarsely ground endosperm of corn Kasha- roasted buckwheat that is hulled and crushed; nutty flavor Millet- small, yellow grains with mild flavor Oats- eaten as hot cereal or in baked goods Quinoa- ricelike grain, good source of protein Triticale- cross between wheat and rye, more protein than wheat Wheat berries- whole, unprocessed wheat kernels

11 Ready-to-Eat and Instant Cereals
Dry breakfast cereals can fit into a healthy eating plan Choose one that is high in complex carbohydrates and fiber Choose whole grain Some vitamins and minerals are added to cereals in the form of sprays Dissolve in milk, drink all of the milk! Hot cereals are available in “instant” varieties Sugar and other flavors often added

12 Pasta Comes in a variety of shapes
Can buy enriched and whole wheat pastas Some are flavored and colored with carrots, spinach, and tomatoes Noodles are made with eggs Can be made without the yolks

13 Breads Varieties include enriched, whole wheat, and mixed whole grains
Leavened breads are made with yeast or baking powder Unleavened breads include tortillas and pitas Whole wheat-made from whole grain Wheat- some part of the grain has been removed Some dark breads are made with white flour and molasses

14 Storing Grains and Grain Products
Store whole grain or whole grain products in the refrigerator if storing for a few weeks Contain oil so they can spoil at room temp Refrigerate fresh pasta Store uncooked grains in a cool dry place Store breads at room temperature Store cooked grains in the refrigerator if using within a few days, freeze for later use

15 Preparing Grains and Grain Products Legumes, Nuts, and Seeds
17.2, 17.3 Preparing Grains and Grain Products Legumes, Nuts, and Seeds

16 Principles of Cooking Grains
Grains are cooked in water by different cooking methods and time Added B vitamins are lost if rinsed before cooking You can microwave, but usually takes just as long as cooking on the stove

17 Preparing Rice and Other Grains
Rice is simmered: Bring liquid to a boil Add rice and cover Bring to a boil again Reduce heat so rice simmers Do not stir unless necessary Rice should me moist and tender, but firm No liquid should be left in the pot

18 Preparing Rice and Other Grains
Pasta is cooked in a large amount of boiling water Boiling helps circulate the pasta to cook evenly Cooked until al dente- firm to the bite Cooks in 5-20 minutes Drain in colander, do not rinse with water as it washes off nutrients Stir in 1 tsp of oil to freeze pasta

19 Preparing Cereals Hot cereals are prepared with water or milk
Only add boiling water to instant hot cereals Some can be microwaved to serve hot

20 Nutrients in Legumes Legumes- plants whose seeds grow in pods and split along both sides when ripe Excellent sources of: Complex carbohydrates (fiber), proteins, B vitamins, Iron, Calcium, Potassium Examples of legumes are: dried beans, peas, and seeds (including navy, broad, butter, northern, pinto, red, and black beans, as well as chick peas, soybeans, and peanuts).

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