Presentation on theme: "Cooking with GRAINS THE STAFF OF LIFE. UNDERSTANDING GRAINS AND GRAIN PRODUCTS Grains are seeds of plants from the grass family. Common grains include:"— Presentation transcript:
UNDERSTANDING GRAINS AND GRAIN PRODUCTS Grains are seeds of plants from the grass family. Common grains include: wheat, rice, corn oats and barley.
LESS COMMON GRAINS Millet – a small, yellow grain with a mild flavor Triticale – a cross between wheat and rye Wild Rice – is not really rice but an entirely different grain. Buckwheat - is not a true grain, but rather the fruit of a plant
Processed Grains Advances in the milling and processing of grains allowed large scale separation and removal of the bran and germ, resulting in refined flour that consists only of the endosperm. When a grain is refined, most of the bran and some of the germ is removed, resulting in losses of fiber, B vitamins, vitamin E, trace minerals, and unsaturated fat.
Ancient grinding stone from flour mill Flour has been made since prehistoric times. The earliest methods used for producing flour all involved grinding grain between stones.
Now flour is made by running the ground wheat through steel rollers and separating the germ, bran and endosperm. Further refinement included bleaching.
Refined Grains Refined flour became popular because it produced baked goods with a softer texture and extended shelf life.
Enrichment In the early 1940’s, enrichment to restore some B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin) and the mineral iron to refined flour began. Enrichment is defined as the addition of vitamins and minerals to restore some of the nutrients to levels found in a food prior to storage, handling, and processing.
Fortification In 1996, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration mandated the fortification of enriched grain products with folic acid to help women of childbearing age reduce the risk of having a pregnancy affected with a neural tube defect. Similar to the process of enriching foods, fortification also refers to the addition of nutrients, but of nutrients that were not originally present in a food.
GRAIN KERNEL The grain kernel is made up of 3 parts: Endosperm – the part of the grain kernel that is the food supply for a new grain plant. Nutrients located in the endosperm include carbohydrates (or starch) and protein.
___Bran___ – the outer, protective covering of the grain kernel. Bran is high in fiber, B-vitamins and minerals. __Germ_ – the inner most part of the grain kernel. The germ is where a new grain plant would begin to grow if the seed where planted.
RAW GRAINS Grains, in their _natural state, cannot be eaten and digested by humans. In order for our digestive systems to digest grains and allow their nutrients to be used by our bodies, they must be processed and then cooked. The processing starts with first removing the outer hull. The remaining grain kernels are then processed in different ways depending on the product they will be made into.
PROCESSING Whole grain – the kernel in the state found in nature Whole grain products – the entire grain kernel was used but may also contain refined grain. Enriched - the germ and bran were removed and only the endosperm was used. The nutrients lost from the germ and bran, B-vitamins, minerals are added back in artificially. The fiber lost from removal of the bran is not added back. (example: Wonder bread) Fortified – when 10% or more of the grains nutrients that where originally presents are added to the product. (example: Total cereal)
RECOMMENDATIONS MyPlate now recommends that least half of grain product choices be ones that their first ingredient is a whole grain.
Whole Grain Products Ezekiel Bread (sprouted whole grains) 100% whole wheat bread Most whole wheat bread, crackers, tortillas, pasta some white flour in them and additives.
REFINED GRAIN CHOICES white flour de-germed cornmeal white bread white rice
RICE Brown rice – the whole grain form of rice White rice – the germ and bran of the rice kernel has been removed. White rice comes in 3 basic forms: 1. Short grain – A dish made from short grain rice is Risotto. When Risotto is prepared, the rice is stirred during the entire cooking time. The stirring action causes some of the outer endosperm to rub off and create a starchy paste that makes the rice stick together.
2. Medium grain– Dishes made from medium are less sticky than short grain rice. Chinese rice is often made from this type. The rice sticks together so it can be easily scooped up with chopsticks. 3. Long grain– When cooked, this rice should be fluffy and not stick together. This is accomplished by not stirring during the cooking time so to not scrap off the outer endosperm and then make it sticky.
Converted rice– the rice is parboiled before the hull is removed. This process helps preserve the nutrients in the rice kernel. (example: Uncle Ben’s) Instant rice – pre-cooked white rice and is then dehydrated. Only a few minutes of cooking time is needed to make the rice eatable. (example: Minute Rice)
WHEAT Bulgur – cracked wheat that have been steamed, dried and crushed. Bulgur is very chewy and is often added to main dishes and side salads. Couscous – this Middle Eastern dish is made from steamed, cracked endosperm of wheat. It’s nutty flavor is used as a cereal, salad or side dish.
Cracked wheat – wheat berries that have cracked into pieces Bran – is made from the outer covering of the wheat kernel. It is often added to baked goods. Wheat germ – is the inner part of the wheat kernel. It is often added to cereals, topping for yogurt and ice cream. It adds crunch and lots of vitamins, protein and minerals to dishes.
OATS Steel-cut oats – are whole grain groats (the inner portion of the oat kernel) which have been cut into pieces. Steel-cut oats take longer to cook than instant or rolled oats due to their minimal processing, typically 15–30 minutes (though much less if pre-soaked). The flavor of the cooked oats is described as being nuttier than other types of oats, and they are also chewier. groats kernel
OATS Rolled oats – the oat kernels were run between two rolled which flattens the kernel and breaks down the bran, endosperm and germ. When rolled oats are cooked, the heat and moisture can get to the inner parts of the kernel more easily, shortening the cooking time needed to make it ediable.
Quick oatmeal – are made from rolled oat but are chopped up more therefore exposing more of the inner parts of the kernel and shortening the cooking time. Instant oatmeal – is quick oatmeal that has been pre-cooked and dehydrated. Only the addition of hot water and some standing time is needed to make it into a cooked breakfast cereal. OATS
CORN Cornmeal – is coarsely ground, dried corn. Corn is often served in baked goods or as a breakfast cereal called mush. Hominy – Corn kernels are soaked in lye water. The endosperm swells and the bran pops off leaving the endosperm and the germ. Hominy is a Southern food that is often fried in pork fat and eaten as a side dish.
Grits – Is made from dried, ground hominy. Grits are another Southern food that is served as a cooked cereal for breakfast. Tortilla – a Mexican product that is made form cornmeal (and wheat) and formed into a very thin, flat pancake. It is used in many Mexican dishes such as tacos and enchiladas.
OTHER GRAINS Barley – the kernel is cooked and served as a side dish or added to soups (vegetable barley soup) Kaska – roasted and crushed buckwheat kernels served as breakfast cereal
Selecting Whole Grains Buying: Look for grains with undamaged kernels. The outer bran layer protects the kernel’s flavor and nutrients from destruction by light and air, so it comes in rather handy The first thing you should know about buying whole grain flours is that they should always smell fresh. Store them in the refrigerator in moisture-tight containers, where you can expect them to last 2 to 4 months.
PREPARATION AND STORAGE Most grains products are cooked in water for enough time for the kernel to absorb the water, soften the fibers and make them eatable. It is best not to rinse grain products after cooking them. Doing so washes away some of the nutrients. Unlike most foods, grain products do not cook faster in the microwave because they need a certain amount of time exposed to the water and heat in order to be cooked. (However, cooking and serving grain products in the same dish does save on clean up. There is also less sticking to the pan)
COOKING WHOLE GRAINS Rinse: Just prior to cooking, rinse whole grains thoroughly in cold water until the water runs clear then strain them to remove any dirt or debris. Cook: As a general rule, you can cook whole grains by simply boiling the water, then adding the grain, return water to a boil, then simmer, covered, until tender. Test: Just like pasta, always test whole grains for doneness before taking them off of the heat; most whole grains should be slightly chewy when cooked. Fluff: When grains are done cooking, remove them from the heat and gently fluff them with a fork. Then cover them and set aside to let sit for 5 to 10 minutes and serve
COOKING PASTA – For every 8 oz. of pasta, you need approximately 2 quarts of water. Use a large pot and bring the water to a boil. – Add the pasta slowly so to not stop the water from boiling. Stir pasta often to keep it from sticking together. – Bring the water back to a boil. Keep the water boiling and the lid off. Stir occasionally. – Cook until the pasta is _“al dente”_ which means __“firm to the bite”. There should not be a hard center. Drain away the excess water. Add a little ______oil_____ to help keep the pasta from sticking together.
STORING GRAINS Uncooked whole grains: short time at room temperature but in the refrigerator or freezer is best (to keep the fats in the germ from going rancid) Cooked whole grains: short time in the refrigerator, longer storage in the freezer Refined grain products have longer shelf life but are depleted of nutrients and have little nutritional value