2 Grains Definition: single, hard seed Most common grains Wheat Corn Rice
3 Video Clip – Why eat whole grains??? 1 minute 48 second clip --
4 Wheat KernelBran – Outer protective coating – source of B vitamins and fiberEndosperm – contains most of the starch and hold the plants food supply - starchy carbohydratesGerm – reproductive part of plant – B vitamins , proteins, minerals and healthy fats
5 What’s a Whole Grain?Whole Grains: Made from entire kernel including bran, germ, endosperm.Fortified grains: Adding 10% or more of the daily value of a specific nutrient to a product.Enriched: Adding nutrients lost during the processing of the grain back into the finished product ex. White flour.
6 Why do Whole Grains Matter? Diets rich in whole grain foods and other plant foods, and low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may help reduce the risk of heart diseaseConsuming at least 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole grains per day can reduce the risk of several chronic diseases and may help with weight maintenanceHigh fiber -High in B VitaminsLow fat -Rich Sources of MineralsLow salt and sugar
7 Wheat Cont… Common Wheat: used for flour Durum Wheat: type of wheat with high protein and gluten contentsSemolina: Endosperm only of Durum wheatCouscous: Granular form of semolinaBulgur: cracked durum wheat that has been parboiled, dried, then crackedSpelt: Type of wheatSemolina wheat is made to make farina cereal
8 Less common types of grain Amaranth – a seed high in protein, calcium, iron, and zinc.Kamut – a highly nutritious ancient wheat.Millet – an easily digestible grain that is high in iron and proteinQuinoa – originates in Peru and has the highest protein of all grains.Spelt – another strain of wheat that is higher in protein and fiberTriticale – a cross between rye and wheat.Couscous – made from semolina, the ground endosperm of hard durum wheat (not “WHOLE GRAIN”)Bulgar – made from whole wheat berries that have been steamed and cracked
9 What do you look for on a package that identifies the product as Whole Grain? Look for the words “whole grain” in large letters. 100% whole grain is bestChoose foods that name one of the following whole-grain ingredients first on the label’s ingredient list: brown rice”, “bulgur”, “graham flour” , “oatmeal”, “whole-grain corn”, “whole oats”, “whole rye”, “whole wheat”, “wild rice”Foods labeled with the words “multi-grain,” “stone-ground,” “100% wheat,” “cracked wheat,” “seven-grain,” or “bran” are usually not whole-grain products.Color is not an indication of a whole grain. Bread can be brown because of molasses or other added ingredients. Read the ingredient list to see if it is a whole grain.
10 PASTAPasta is usually made from DURHAM wheat because of its high protein and gluten.Pasta test for doneness- al dente (meaning firm to the tooth)Pasta doubles as it cooks. 1 cup uncooked pasta will yield 2 cups cooked.To Cook:Boil a large pot of waterAdd pasta once boilingCook 10 minutesDrainToss with oil to prevent it from sticking togetherAvoid stirring to often
11 Worldwide there are more than 40,000 different varieties of rice!
12 Basic Categories of Rice Long grain Rice- Long, polished kernels. Bland and somewhat firm in texture. Yields a drier, fluffy rice.Ex. Basmati and JasmineMedium Grain Rice- has a shorter, wider kernel (two to three times longer than its width) than long grain rice. Cooked grains are more moist and tender, and have a greater tendency to cling together than long grain. Ex. Sushi RiceShort Grain Rice- Short grain rice has a short, plump, almost round kernel. Cooked grains are soft and cling together.Ex. Arborio Rice
13 Nutritional Differences of Rice Brown Rice- the whole grain form of rice with only the husk removedParboiled Rice- steam was passed through the grains with the husks on. The nutrients are embedded into the grain by this procedure. The rice is polished after this steaming is done. This results in more nutritious rice than white rice and more digestible rice than brown rice.Instant Rice- Precooked and they dehydrated, cooks quickly and the yield is doubled.
14 Cooking Rice Double the amount of water for rice. (1:2 ratio) Bring water to boil.Add and stir in rice.Turn heat to low and put on lid.Cook for minutes (parboiled) 45-1hr (brown rice).Rice is done if no water is visible.Fluff with a fork.Rice Triples as it cooks.1 cup uncooked rice yields 3 cups of cooked rice.
15 Preparation Techniques Quick Bread - prepare in a short amount of time, cook fast, uses, baking powder, baking soda, egg whites or steam to leavenCrepesMuffinsBiscuitsWafflesCream PuffsFruit and Nut BreadsYeast Bread - Leavened with the gas (CO2) from chemical reactions with yeast; - knead process; more time to prepareBreadsRollsFrench banquettesDoughnutsPizza CrustSugar needed to feed yeastSalt needed to prevent over processing
16 Why choose Grains? Cheap Easy to Store Variety in choice and in cooking methodsMixing Methods include:Pastry : Cut in fat, makes flakyMuffin: just until dry ingredients are mixedKnead: use palm of hand, rest, rise, shape rise again, time
17 Grains used in Gravy/Sauces Flour - mostly for graviesCornstarch – mostly used for puddings and sweet saucesUsed to thicken with a liquid and heatPrevent lumps by coating with a fat(butter, meat drippings, etc.) and stirring constantly