Presentation on theme: "Grains & Cereals. What are cereals? Starchy grains (the SEEDS of plants) that are suitable to use as food Used to make: –Breakfast foods –Flours –Meals."— Presentation transcript:
The Structure of Grains A KERNEL is the whole seed of a cereal. A kernel has 3 parts: –BRAN: outer protective covering, good source of vitamins and fiber (cellulose). Why do we need fiber? –ENDOSPERM: makes up largest part of the kernel. Contains STARCH and PROTEIN, but very little MINERALS or FIBER. Is the food supply of the plant. –GERM: reproductive part of the plant; rich in vitamins, minerals, protein, and FAT. SMALLEST part of the kernel.
So what does this mean? WHOLE GRAIN products contain all 3 parts of the kernel: –BRAN –GERM –ENDOSPERM Contributes B vitamins, iron, magnesium, zinc, etc! You need at least 3 servings of whole grains daily! REFINED (or white) products have had the bran and the germ removed… all they contain is ENDOSPERM! Only contributes calories and a small amt. of protein… unless enriched.
The bottom line… How does the nutritional value of a WHOLE GRAIN product compare with a REFINED or WHITE product? Whole grain products contain more vitamins, minerals, protein, fat, and fiber!
What about ENRICHED grains? An enriched grain is a REFINED product (with the bran & germ removed)… that then has vitamins/minerals added BACK into the product after processing. B vitamins (niacin, thiamin, riboflavin), iron, and fiber are commonly added. Most white rice, white bread, breakfast cereals are enriched!
Breakfast Cereals Ready-to-eat: completely precooked (like Rice Krispies) Quick-cooking grains: CONVENIENCE foods, partially cooked (instant oatmeal) Raw or old-fashioned cereals: require longer cooking time (oatmeal)
FLOUR Any grain can be made into flour! All-purpose flour is a REFINED product- it consists primarily of endosperm. –You can buy all-purpose flour BLEACHED or unbleached- the nutritional value is the same! Whole wheat flour is also available- good at providing structure to baked goods
RICE White rice is a REFINED grain BROWN rice is a WHOLE grain Converted rice is PARBOILED to save nutrients before the hull is removed
Pasta shape varieties add EYE APPEAL to your meal!
All About Pasta Pasta dough is made from semolina flour- which is made from durum wheat (a type of wheat grown especially for pasta making!) Can be FRESH (cooks quickly) or DRIED Noodles are made by adding eggs to pasta dough You can make your own pasta at home!
COOKING PASTA 1.In a large pot, fill with water 2/3 full. 2.Add salt and oil if desired. 3.Bring water to a boil, then add pasta. 4.Cook UNCOVERED, about 10-12 minutes, until al dente (cooking time depends on THICKNESS) 5.Drain in a colander- do not rinse! *Pasta doubles as it cooks… 1c uncooked pasta yields 2 cups cooked pasta*
COOKING RICE 1.Double the amount of water for the rice- you only want to use the amount that can be ABSORBED! 2.Add salt and butter if desired. 3.Bring the water to the boil, then stir in rice. 4.Turn heat to LOW and PUT ON LID! 5.Cook for 20-25 minutes- rice is done if no water is visible. 6.Don’t stir- fluff with a fork! *Rice triples as it cooks- 1c uncooked rice yields 3 cups cooked*
Storing Grains DRY, UNCOOKED grains should be stored tightly covered in a cool, dry place. COOKED pasta or rice that will be used in a few days should be covered and stored in the refrigerator! You can also freeze cooked pasta- add oil beforehand to prevent sticking.