Presentation on theme: "Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 is the most common form of diabetes, affecting 85-90% of all people with diabetes. While it usually affects older adults, more and."— Presentation transcript:
Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 is the most common form of diabetes, affecting 85-90% of all people with diabetes. While it usually affects older adults, more and more younger people, even children, are getting type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas makes some insulin but it is not produced in the amount your body needs and it does not work effectively. Type 2 diabetes results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Although there is a strong genetic predisposition, the risk is greatly increased when associated with lifestyle factors such as; -high blood pressure -overweight or obesity -insufficient physical activity -poor diet and -the classic ‘apple shape’ body where extra weight is carried around the waist. Type 2 diabetes can often initially be managed with healthy eating and regular physical activity. However, over time most people with type 2 diabetes will also need tablets and many will also need insulin. It is important to note that this is just the natural progression of the disease, and taking tablets or insulin as soon as they are required can result in fewer complications in the long-term. There is currently no cure for type 2 diabetes.
Cause of Type 2 Diabetes While there is no single cause of type 2 diabetes, there are well-established risk factors. Some of these can be changed and some cannot. You are at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes if you: have a family history of diabetes are older (over 55 years of age ) - the risk increases as we age are over 45 years of age and are overweight are over 45 years of age and have high blood pressure are over 35 years of age and are from an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander background are over 35 years of age and are from Pacific Island, Indian subcontinent or Chinese cultural background are a woman who has given birth to a child over 4.5 kgs (9 lbs), or had gestational diabetes when pregnant, or had a condition known as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes In type 2 diabetes, many people have no symptoms at all, while other signs are dismissed as a part of ‘getting older’. By the time type 2 diabetes is diagnosed, the complications of diabetes may already be present. Symptoms include: Being excessively thirsty Passing more urine Feeling tired and lethargic Always feeling hungry Having cuts that heal slowly Itching, skin infections Blurred vision Gradually putting on weight Mood swings Headaches Feeling dizzy Leg cramps
Preventing Type 2 Diabetes It is estimated that up to 60% of type 2 diabetes can be prevented. People at risk of type 2 diabetes can delay and even prevent this disease by following a healthy lifestyle. This includes: Maintaining a healthy weight Regular physical activity Making healthy food choices Managing blood pressure Managing cholesterol levels Not smoking
Managing Type 2 Diabetes Tablets Type 2 diabetes can sometimes initially be managed through lifestyle modification including a healthy diet and regular exercise. However, as the disease progresses, people with type 2 diabetes are often prescribed tablets to control their blood glucose levels. These tablets are intended to be used in conjunction with healthy eating and regular physical activity, not as a substitute. Diabetes tablets are not an oral form of insulin and they require insulin to be present in the body to be effective. Eventually it may be necessary to start taking insulin to control blood glucose levels, when your body is no longer producing enough insulin of its own. Sometimes tablets may be continued in addition to insulin. The aim of diabetes management is to keep blood glucose levels as close to ‘normal' as possible, that is between 4 to 6 mmol/L (fasting), as this will help prevent both short-term and long-term complications. Regular blood glucose monitoring is necessary to see if the treatment being followed is adequately controlling blood glucose levels.
Managing Type 2 Diabetes Insulin In people with type 2 diabetes the body produces insulin but the insulin does not work as well as it should. This is often referred to as insulin resistance. To compensate the body makes more but eventually cannot make enough to keep the balance right. Lifestyle changes can delay the need for tablets and/or insulin to stabilise blood glucose levels. When insulin is required, it is important to understand that this is just the natural progression of the disease. At this stage, insulin can only be injected.
Managing Type 2 Diabetes Monitoring Blood Glucose levels Similarly to Type 1 Diabetes, ensuring that an individual is aware of their blood sugar levels is an important part of adequately managing the disease and keeping the blood glucose levels as safe as possible. Dietary considerations Similarly to Type 1 Diabetes, a healthy diet that incorporates slow release carbohydrates is an important management strategy for Diabetes Type 2. The following are important; Regulating diet so intake is matched to insulin and exercise Increasing the amount of ‘slow’ carbohydrates in the diet, such as beans and fruit, which take longer to be absorbed by the body Avoiding choosing high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt or low-fibre foods