Presentation on theme: "Diabetes 101 Nutrition 120. The Facts on Diabetes - Your body cannot properly store and use fuel for energy. The fuel that your body needs is called glucose."— Presentation transcript:
The Facts on Diabetes - Your body cannot properly store and use fuel for energy. The fuel that your body needs is called glucose - Glucose comes from foods such as breads, cereals, pasta, rice, potatoes, fruits and some vegetables - To use glucose, your body needs insulin made by a gland called the pancreas - More than 2 million Canadians have diabetes!
Type 1– also called insulin dependent OR juvenile diabetes (like Mrs. HW) No one really knows what causes type 1 diabetes. We do know that: There is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes, even if you had been to see the doctor sooner. The body's immune system may attack your insulin-making cells by mistake, but we don't know why. People usually find out they have type 1 diabetes before the age of 30, most often in childhood or during their teens. It is not caused by eating too much sugar. Approximately 10% of people with diabetes have type 1
Type 2 Diabetes The remaining 90 % have type 2! Occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin OR when the body does not effectively use the insulin that is produced. Type 2 diabetes usually develops in adulthood, although increasing numbers of children in high-risk populations are being diagnosed. Type 2 diabetics may be able to keep their blood glucose levels in a target range through healthy eating, physical activity and by taking diabetes medication.
3 rd Type Gestational diabetes, is a temporary condition that occurs during pregnancy. It affects approximately 3.5 per cent of all pregnancies and involves an increased risk of developing diabetes for both mother and child.
Is Diabetes Serious? If left untreated or improperly managed, diabetes can result in a variety of complications, including: Heart disease Kidney disease Eye disease Problems with erection (impotence) Nerve damage
SERIOUS!?~ Life expectancy for people with type 1 diabetes may be shortened by as much as 15 years. Life expectancy for people with type 2 diabetes may be shortened by 5 to 10 years. ARE YOU at RISK??? Check NOW!
What are the risk factors for diabetes? Aged 40 or over are at risk for type 2 diabetes and should be tested at least every three years. If any of the following risks factors apply, you should be tested earlier and/or more often. Members of high-risk groups (Aboriginal, Hispanic, Asian, South Asian or African descent) Overweight (especially if you carry most of your weight around your middle) A parent, brother or sister with diabetes Health complications that are associated with diabetes Birthed a baby that weighed more than 4 kg (9 lb) Had gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) Impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose High blood pressure High cholesterol or other fats in the blood
What are the symptoms? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uWOzpwiZuHc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uWOzpwiZuHc Unusual thirst Frequent urination Weight change (gain or loss) Extreme fatigue or lack of energy Blurred vision Frequent or recurring infections Cuts and bruises that are slow to heal Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet Trouble getting or maintaining an erection
How do I know? The TESTS! 1. Fasting Blood Glucose – 8 hr fast – 7.0mmol/L or higher 2. Casual Blood Glucose – Done any time regardless of when you ate – 11.0mmol/L or higher 3. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test – Sweetened drink, wait 2 hrs and test - 11.1 or higher *Second test has to occur in ALL cases – if a second test is positive – referral to Diabetes Education.
Can you prevent diabetes? Scientists believe that lifestyle changes can help prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. A healthy meal plan, weight control and physical activity are important prevention steps.
How is diabetes treated? Education: Diabetes education is an important first step. All people with diabetes need to be informed about their condition. Physical Activity: Regular physical activity helps your body lower blood glucose levels, promotes weight loss, reduces stress and enhances overall fitness. Nutrition: What, when and how much you eat all play an important role in regulating blood glucose levels. Weight Management: Maintaining a healthy weight is especially important in the management of type 2 diabetes..
Treatment continued… Medication: Type 1 diabetes is always treated with insulin. Type 2 diabetes is managed through physical activity and meal planning and may require medications and/or insulin to assist the body in making or using insulin more effectively. Lifestyle Management: Reduced stress levels can help people manage diabetes. High Blood Pressure: leads to eye disease, heart disease, stroke and kidney disease. Diabetics must maintain a blood pressure level at or below 130/80. They may need to change eating and physical activity habits and/or take medication.
The Prevalence and Costs of Diabetes In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that over 177 million people have diabetes. By 2025, this figure will top 300 million.
Canadian Costs People with diabetes incur medical costs that are two to three times higher than those without diabetes. A person with diabetes can face direct costs for medication and supplies ranging from $1,000 to $15,000 a year. By 2020, it’s estimated that diabetes will cost the Canadian healthcare system $16.9 billion a year.
Costs and Prevalence Cont… Approximately 80% of people with diabetes will die as a result of heart disease or stroke. Diabetes is a contributing factor in the deaths of approximately 41,500 Canadians each year. Canadian adults with diabetes are twice as likely to die prematurely. For example, a Canadian with diabetes is four times as likely to die at age 35 than a 35-year-old without diabetes. Life expectancy for people with type 1 diabetes may be shortened by as much as 15 years. Life expectancy for people with type 2 diabetes may be shortened by 5 to 10 years
Costs and Prevalence Cont’d The financial burden of diabetes on diabetics and on the Canadian healthcare system is enormous. A diabetic incurs medical costs that are two to three times higher than that of a person without diabetes. They can face direct costs for medication and supplies ranging from $1,000 to $15,000 a year. A U.S. study states diabetes and its complications cost the Canadian healthcare system an estimated $13.2 billion every year. By 2010, it's estimated these costs will rise to $15.6 billion a year and by 2020, $19.2 billion a year.
The Canadian Epidemic: Prevalence of Diabetes in Canada, 1996 Overall self-reported prevalence (15+): 3.4% (n=786,000) Source: Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, Public Use Microdata, 1996/97
The Canadian Epidemic: Prevalence in Canada, 1994/95 to 2000/01, by Province 1996 - 1997 2.5 3. 1 3.2 3.20 3.2 3.40 4.60 4.6 Prevalence (%) 1.30 to 2.90 3.00 to 3.40 3.50 to 3.90 4.00 to 4.40 5.00 to 5.40 5.50 to 5.90 No data 3.10 1998 - 1999 3.4 4.4 3.1 3.3 3.6 4.0 5.2 3.1 2000 - 2001 1.3 3.4 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 5.0 5.15.2 5.8 3.2 1994 - 1995 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.50 3.6 3.90 Source: Statistics Canada: CANSIM II
Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes may be prevented or delayed, through: increased physical activity healthy eating weight loss not smoking stress reduction. In a large study, people at risk of type 2 diabetes were able to cut that risk 58% by: exercising moderately for 30 minutes a day losing 5-7% of their body weight. In people over 60, the risk was cut by almost 71%. Other large studies have shown similar results in reducing risk.
NB & Diabetes Over 34,000 people have diabetes in New Brunswick, or 5.4 per cent of the population. The rate of undiagnosed diabetes can be as high as 30 per cent in New Brunswick.