2 What is diabetes?Insulin is a chemical, naturally produced in the pancreas, that helps the body process and use sugar for energyEnergy to sustain normal body processes – breathing, blood circulation, digestionEnergy for us to move, exercise and otherwise function through the day
3 What is diabetes? Diabetes means that the pancreas doesn’t… …produce any insulin (Type I Diabetes )…produce enough insulin (Type II Diabetes)There are other types of diabetes that we diagnose and treat, but the most common are Type I and II.
4 Type I Diabetes Usually starts before age 40 Usually very abrupt onset of diseaseBecause the pancreas produces virtually no insulin, the only treatment is insulin replacementMuch less common that Type II
5 Type II Diabetes Usually starts when people are older Although the average age of onset is getting youngerDoes not usually start abruptly – this develops over yearsMany therapies to treatDiet and exerciseMedications (oral)Medications (injectable), including insulin replacementNew research – cell transplants, “the artificial pancreas,” new medications, etc.
6 Quick Stats from the American Diabetes Association In 2012, 29.1 million Americans with Diabetes (9.3%)8.1 million of those are NOT diagnosed yetApproximately 25% of people over 65 have diabetes86 million (age 20+) have pre-diabetes7th leading cause of death in the United States
7 Quick Stats from the American Diabetes Association Diabetes causes many other problems in adulthoodAbout 70% of diabetics have problems with blood pressure and cholesterolAbout 29% of diabetics (age 40+) have diabetic retinopathy (can lead to blindness)1.8 times more likely to be hospitalized due to a heart attack1.5 times more likely to be hospitalized due to a stroke44% of new kidney failure cases are due to diabetes60% of limb amputations (non-trauma) occur in diabetics
8 Quick Stats from the American Diabetes Association Cost is incredible - $245 billion in 2012 – includes direct medical costs and the cost of lost productivityMedical expenditures for diabetics are 2.3 times higher than for non-diabetics
9 Increasing numbers of diabetic patients is putting a significant burden on the healthcare system We need to recognize patients earlierWe need to be better at treating patients and encouraging them to be compliantWe need to work at prevention and education
10 Know the Risk Factors Age (over 45) History of gestational diabetes when pregnant, or have a high birth-weight babyHeredityHigh blood pressureSedentary lifestyle, lack of exerciseOverweight/obesePolycystic ovarian syndromeCertain ethnicities – Latino, Native American, African American and others
11 Doing our part today…At the 2014 Women’s Expo we are offering a Blood Glucose Screening testSuggested to be fasting for 8 hours, but we can test if you have already eaten today
12 Screening test results (fasting) Normal test. Likelihood of diabetes is low> 100 (fasting) Elevated test result. See your provider for further advice>200 (non-fasting) See your provider for further advice
13 Diagnosing Diabetes For those that have results 100-125 May be considered a “pre-diabetic”Your provider will be watching your numbers more frequentlyMay start some medications to delay onset of diseaseWill discuss strategies for prevention or how to delay onset
14 Prevention for PreDiabetics Does not mean that you will automatically develop diabetesEarly recognition and treatment can restore blood sugar levels to normalLower your risk 58%Losing 7% of body weight (15 pounds for 200 pound person)Exercising moderately (30 minutes/day x 5 days per week)
15 Diagnosing DiabetesUsually diagnosed when someone has 2 or more fasting blood sugars over 126Or if you have one high blood sugar and signs and symptoms of diabetesFrequently thirsty or urinating oftenUnexplained fatigueBlurry visionSlow healing woundsNumbness or tingling in the feet or hands
16 Diagnosing Diabetes Your provider may do some additional lab tests Hemoglobin A1C – looks at blood sugar control over the past few monthsGlucose Tolerance Test – checks how your body processes a large amount of sugarTreatment and diagnosis is determined by looking at each patient individuallyNot everyone will have the same tests or get the same treatment plan
17 Diabetes PreventionCannot control several things – heredity, age, ethnicityControl the things you canWeightDietBlood pressureActivity
18 Living with Diabetes Early detection Early and effective treatment Consultation with support staff – dietician, diabetes educator, etc.EducationFollow-up with your provider for close monitoringSupport
19 Living with DiabetesWell-controlled and monitored diabetes can prevent or significantly delay the onset of complicationsDespite your best efforts, sometimes the disease advances and the treatment plan needs to changeNeed to stay in communication with your clinic to have the best results!
20 Myth: eating too much sugar causes diabetes Being overweight can contribute to diabetesWeight gain is typically not just from eating too much sugarHowever…sugared beverages are contributing to diabetesRegular soda, energy drinks, fruit juices, sweet tea, etc.Make lower sugar choices – water, flavored waters, diet sodas, low sugar juices
21 Myth: Diabetics need special foods A diabetic diet can include anything that non-diabetics eatHealthy choices are suggested for everyoneLow fat, moderate sugars, lean protein, whole grains, healthy fats, etc.Portion control is the key –whether you are diabetic or not
22 Myth: Diabetic can’t have sweets You can have sweets! It’s all a part of balancing your diet for control of nutrients and carbohydratesPortion controlMaking choices
23 Resources American Diabetic Association Medline/National Institutes of HealthAsk us!