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Dr Kiran Sodha Patient Participation Group October 2014

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Presentation on theme: "Dr Kiran Sodha Patient Participation Group October 2014"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr Kiran Sodha Patient Participation Group October 2014
Diabetes Dr Kiran Sodha Patient Participation Group October 2014

2 Summary Explanation of diabetes
Why we worry about diabetes and it’s long term effects on the body Risks of developing diabetes Management and treatment of diabetes Conclusion & Questions

3 What is diabetes? We all need sugar (glucose) in our blood to survive
Our body fuel is sugar For bodily functions including brain and muscle We need a constant supply of glucose, but it must be the right level levels between 4 - 6mmol/l If too high, or too low we get symptoms In diabetes, blood sugar levels rise too high

4 What happens in diabetes?
Without diabetes: Food eaten and digested in stomach – broken down into glucose – blood sugar levels rise Insulin made by the pancreas acts as a transporter. Moves the sugar from the blood into body cells for use now or at a later stage – which then lowers the blood sugar. In diabetes: The pancreas is impaired so insulin does not work as well or it is not produced at all Blood sugar levels in the body rise which make us feel unwell

5 Diabetes Type 1 Type 2 Pancreas completely stops functioning
Normally happens in younger people Autoimmune most likely cause – the body mistakenly attacking the cells that make insulin Genetic component Type 2 Insulin may not be as effective or insulin production is reduced Usually later in life over age of 40 More common if overweight 1 in 20 aged over 65, 1 in 5 over 85 5 times more common in South Asian & afro-caribbean populations Increased risk if other family members have diabetes

6 ‘My blood sugar is high. What’s the fuss?’
High sugar levels in the blood make us feel unwell Feeling thirsty all the time Passing large amounts of urine Tiredness, weight loss Blurred vision Recurrent infections Severe: dehydration, drowsiness, life-threatening Some might not have any symptoms (type 2)

7 Longer term complications
Increased risk of angina, heart attacks, stroke, poor circulation Kidney damage which can lead to kidney failure Eye problems affecting vision Nerve damage Foot problems due to poor circulation and nerve damage Impotence due to poor circulation and nerve damage

8 Diagnosing & monitoring diabetes control
Diabetes diagnosis Random blood sugar >11 mmol/l Fasting blood sugar >7 mmol/l Glucose tolerance test >11 mmol/l HbA1c >6.5 (limited use) Pre-diabetes fasting blood sugar >6.1 - <7 Glucose tolerance test >7.8 - <11.1 Nearly 1 in 5 of 40-65years in UK have ‘pre-diabetes’

9 Managing & Treating diabetes
What are the aims of treatment? To keep your blood glucose level as near normal as possible Lifestyle – diet, weight & exercise Medication – tablets or insulin (injections) Manage risk factors Keep blood pressure down Stop smoking Keep cholesterol down Prevent & manage complications Regular checks of blood sugar, HbA1c, cholesterol & blood pressure Eye checks, Foot checks Kidney tests, urine tests

10 Lifestyle Diet Weight loss Reduce fat, reduce salt, reduce sugar
Increase fibre intake, fruit & vegetables Weight loss May help to reduce glucose Increased overall wellbeing, mood & fitness Physical activity, reduce risk of cardiovascular complications as well


12 Exercise Minimise sedentary/sitting periods 2 and half hours a week =
30 minutes of exercise per day over 5 days or 75 minutes of vigorous activity Eg – Brisk walking, cycling, running, football, swimming, carrying or moving goods including groceries Minimise sedentary/sitting periods Reduce time in front of TV

13 Medications Metformin Gliclazide Gliptins Insulin
Increases the effectiveness of insulin the body has Gliclazide Increased release of insulin from the pancreas Gliptins Increase hormones that lead to increased release of insulin Insulin Many different types – short acting / long acting – to suit different lifestyles Can be given directly by injection if tablets are not effective Use in type 1 diabetes

14 Hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar)
May occur with certain medications and insulin Symptoms weakness, faintness, hunger Confusion, strange behaviour Sweating, cold, clammy Pins & needles in lips/tongue Treatment Sweets, sugary drinks, glucose drinks Check blood sugar and follow up with further food to prevent hypoglycaemia occurring again

15 Summary Any questions? What diabetes is Why we treat How we diagnose
Management – lifestyle, medications and routine checks Managing hypoglycaemia Any questions?

16 http://www. patient. co. uk/health/low-fat-diet-sheet http://www. nhs

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