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DIABETES Educational session for patients at PEARL MEDICAL PRACTICE

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Presentation on theme: "DIABETES Educational session for patients at PEARL MEDICAL PRACTICE"— Presentation transcript:

1 DIABETES Educational session for patients at PEARL MEDICAL PRACTICE
Dr P Mehta 2nd July 2013

2 It’s a big problem! Diabetes is an important medical condition that causes a lot of illness and deaths Around 3.75 million people have it and approximately 7 million people are at a high risk of getting it. Lots of people don’t know they have it. In the UK about 1 in 5 people over 65 have diabetes

3 What is diabetes? Diabetes is when the level of sugar in your blood becomes higher than what is considered normal. Mainly 2 types of diabetes Type 1: Less common, diagnosed mostly when young, need insulin injections Type 2: More common, normally occurs later in life, treated with tablets or insulin

4 Why does the sugar level go up?
The body makes a hormone called INSULIN. Insulin helps to keep our glucose levels within a safe range by making cells in the body take up glucose in the blood In diabetes the following happens Type 1: The body doesn’t produced any insulin Type 2: The body doesn’t produce enough insulin or the insulin doesn’t work properly.

5 Taken from

6 Type 2 Diabetes More common
Onset is usually later in life (after 40) but can happen at any time The body doesn’t make enough insulin or the insulin it makes doesn’t work properly (insulin resistance). Lots of risk factors that are in your control so you can do something to help reduce your risk.

7 Risk factors for Diabetes
Non-modifiable risk factors (things that are not in your control) Genetics: increased risk if a 1st degree relative has diabetes Ethnicity: more common in people from S.Asian and Afro-carribean backgrounds.

8 Risk factors continued
Modifiable risk factors (things that you can do something about) Weight; being overweight increased your risk as does carrying weight around your middle Lack of exercise and physical inactivity Other medical problems like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, previous heart attack or stroke

9 How would I know if I have diabetes?
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10 Other symptoms Blurry vision Recurrent skin infections
Wounds/cuts that are slow to heal Unexpected weight loss Loss of feeling or burning in the feet Some people will have NO symptoms

11 Testing for Diabetes Normally we do a fasting blood sugar level.
If the level is borderline you would be asked to do a glucose tolerance test to see if you are 1. Normal 2. Borderline (impaired fasting glucose) 3. Diabetic

12 Why must you get treatment?
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13 Treatment Depending on how severe your diabetes is when it is picked up Diet only; if you diabetes is ‘mild’, then you can have a trial of trying to control your sugars by addressing your diet, doing more exercise and making lifestyle changes Medications: If your diabetes is significant you will need to take medications

14 Medications Medications
There are many medications around which work on the insulin that you still have in your body to try and make it more effective at controlling your sugar levels Not everyone needs insulin, but if after maximising all oral treatments then insulin may be the only next best option

15 Monitoring If you are diabetic we monitor you diabetes control by checking something call HBa1c. This gives us an indication of well your sugar control has been in the last 3 months. If you do not have diabetes but were deemed to be borderline we would check this on a yearly basis unless you had symptoms in which case we would do it sooner.

16 Annual checks for diabetes
Bloods – check your sugar control, cholesterol and kidneys Eye check – to see if there is any damage to the back of the eyes Feet check – check that the blood supply and nerves to the feet are in tact General health check; medications, lifestyle, diet, how you are coping Urine check – to see if there is any sign of kidney disease Must take the flu vaccination as you would be high risk of infections.

17 What can I do? Eat well More exercise Stop smoking
Cut down on fatty foods, sugary foods and drinks, fried foods, foods high in fat content Eat more fruit and veg, pulses, lentils, fish, wholegrain pasta’s and rice More exercise Helps reduce blood glucose levels Aim for 20-30mins a day 5 times a week Stop smoking Don’t add to the problems that you have. Smoking and diabetes increase your risk of many serious problems like heart attacks, stroke.

18 Ive already got diabetes so theres no point?!
NO! Its never too late to make changes Even if you have diabetes, eating better, increasing your physical activity levels, stopping smoking, taking medications and attending your check ups will Help control your diabetes and stop it getting worse and worse Help prevent serious complications

19 References Diabetes UK:




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