Presentation on theme: "Sigmund Freud: Theory of Psychosexual Development By: Sarah Beaton, Carly MacNeil, Michelle Cote, Stephanie Sinton, Jacob McDonald and Jeremey Doucette."— Presentation transcript:
Sigmund Freud: Theory of Psychosexual Development By: Sarah Beaton, Carly MacNeil, Michelle Cote, Stephanie Sinton, Jacob McDonald and Jeremey Doucette
Biography Born May 6 th, 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia. Which was in the Austrian Empire, known now as the Czech Republic. By the age of 8, he could read Shakespeare. He attended the University of Vienna, graduating in 1881 with a degree in medicine. In 1903, he founded the Vienna Psychoanalytical Circle, and by 1906 branches were established in several other countries.
Biography (cnt’d) Freud took up work at Theodor Meynert's Psychiatric Clinic… It was here when he began experimenting with the drug, Cocaine. He believed that this drug would become a common treatment for depression and indigestion. He hoped it would cure mental illness by stimulating or modifying the sinus area.
Biography (cnt’d) As he was inventing and refining his field of "psychoanalysis", Freud was becoming convinced of the connection between neurosis and sexual conflict. He believed that a large portion of his patients probably were suffering from sexually related conflicts. After a life of successful studies, he died in 1938.
Freud’s Theories Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages during which the pleasure-seeking energies of the self become focused on certain “erotic” areas. This psychosexual energy, or “libido”, was described as the driving force behind behavior. If the stages are completed successfully, the result is a healthy personality.
Theories (cnt’d) If certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate stage, fixation can occur. A fixation is a continuous focus on an earlier psychosexual stage. Until this conflict is resolved, the individual will remain "stuck" in this stage. For example, a person who is fixated at the oral stage may be over- dependent on others and may seek oral stimulation through smoking, drinking, or eating. During the oral stage, the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important.
Theories (cnt’d) During the anal stage, Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was controlling bladder and bowel movements. The major conflict at this stage is toilet training, the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs. Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence.
Theories (cnt’d) During the phallic stage, the primary focus of the libido is on the genitals. Children also discover the differences between males and females. Freud also believed that boys begin to view their fathers as a rival for the mother’s affections. During the latent period, the development of the ego and superego contribute to a period of calm. The stage begins around the time that children enter into school and become more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies, and other interests. The latent period is a time of exploration in which the sexual energy is still present, but it is directed into other areas.
Theories (cnt’d) During the final stage of psychosexual development, the genital stage, the individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex. Interest in the welfare of others grows during this stage. If the other stages have been completed successfully, the individual should now be well-balanced, warm, and caring. The goal of this stage is to establish a balance between the various life areas.
Freud Critics Much criticism of Freud comes from the way his theories are portrayed in the popular imagination, partly from a still-lingering negative image about sex. There is often the suggestion that his early psychoanalytic theory mentioned that humans were comprised of selected brain structures upon which new rational and ethical structures were somehow imposed.
Freud’s Critics (cnt’d) During Freud’s time, society disagreed with his theory because it seemed out of the ordinary and they were sexually repressed. The conflict between the ID and the ego is no more than what is nowadays described as the nature-nurture debate, the tension between biology and environment.
Works Cited http://www.nndb.com/people/736/000029649/ http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofperson ality/ss/psychosexualdev.htmhttp://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofperson ality/ss/psychosexualdev.htm http://www.gender.org.uk/about/01psanal/11_fre ud.htmhttp://www.gender.org.uk/about/01psanal/11_fre ud.htm Random House Webster’s Dictionary of Scientists Ref 509.2 HUT Quantum Leaps 100 Scientists who Changed The World Ref 509 BAL