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The Rise of Christianity

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Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Christianity"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Rise of Christianity
Chapter 6 Unit 3 Notes

2 The Rise of Christianity
Main Idea RELIGIOUS AND ETHICAL SYSTEMS: Christianity rose in Rome occupied Judea and spread through the Empire Why Now? Christianity has over a billion followers TERMS: Jesus, Apostle, Paul, Diaspora, Constantine, bishop, Peter, and pope

3 The Rise of Christianity
Setting the Stage: Roman gods were worshipped in an impersonal way and without emotion Christianity developed out of a movement in Judaism, emphasized personal relationships with God and people Attracted Romans

4 The Life and Teaching of Jesus
63 BC Judea under Roman control, maintained independence till AD 6 = province of the empire Jews believed that a Messiah (savior) would arrive and restore the Kingdom of the Jews

5 The Life and Teachings of Jesus
Jesus of Nazareth Between 6-4 BC a Jew names Jesus was born in Bethlehem, Judea Raised in Nazareth (N. of Palestine) Baptized by John the Baptist and became a carpenter 30 began public ministry 3 years taught, did good deeds, and performed miracles Monotheism 10 Commandments Emphasized personal relationship with God Love (for ALL, even enemies) Reward of eternal kingdom after death for those who repent

6 The Life and Teachings of Jesus
A Growing Movement Main source of information is from the Gospels Apostles: Jesus’ disciples (pupils) wrote the Gospels Message appealed to poor (Jesus ignored wealth and social status)

7 The Life and Teachings of Jesus
Jesus’ Death His popularity concerned Roman leaders AD 29 he was greeted as a King (Messiah) in Jerusalem Chief Jewish priests denied he was the Messiah and said his teachings were blasphemy Roman Governor Pontius Pilate accused him of defying the authority of Rome Arrested and crucified

8 The Life and Teachings of Jesus
Jesus’ Death con’t…. Placed body in tomb - according to Gospels his body was gone after 3 days and he started appearing to his followers Then he ascended into heaven Ascension made his followers believe he was the Messiah Jesus Christ (Christos, Greek for “messiah” and “savior”) derives Christianity

9 Christianity Spreads Through the Empire
Followers continued to spread beliefs about Jesus Teachings were based on Jewish traditions BUT soon began to create a new religion Christianity spread slowly but steadily

10 Christianity Spreads Through the Empire
Paul’s Mission Apostle, didn’t follow Jesus, but had a vision of Christ and then devoted his life to Christ’s teachings Pax Romana allowed ideas to spread safely Common language - Latin and Greek Paul wrote Epistles (Letters) to believers Stressed Jesus as son of God who died for our sins Welcomed converts Jews or Gentiles (non-Jews)

11 Christianity Spreads Through the Empire
Jewish Rebellion In 66 a group of Jews revolted against Rome In 70 Rome stormed and destroyed the temple All that is left is the western wall (today the holy shrine of the Jews) 1/2 million Jews were killed in the rebellion 132 tried again to break free from Rome 1/2 million died again Religion survived but Jews were driven from homeland in what is known as the Diaspora.

12 Christianity Spreads Through the Empire
Persecution of the Christians Christians refused to worship Roman Gods\ Rome saw as an opposition Also used to scapegoat political and economic problems Conclusion of the Pax Romana persecution intensified Made martyrs (person who sacrifices life for beliefs) for Christianity

13 A World Religion Late 3rd c. million Christians in Roman Empire
Christianity grew because: Embraced all people Hope to powerless Appealed to people who didn’t like extravagance of Rome Personal relationship with God Promised eternal life after death

14 A World Religion Constantine Accepts Christianity
312 emperor Constantine was fighting in a battle and he prayed for divine help Saw a cross in the sky (symbol of Christianity) Ordered his men to put crosses on their shields and they WON Credited his success to the Christian God 313 ended the persecution of the Christians Edict of Milan: declared Christianity to be one of the approved religions of the empire 380 Theodosius made it the official religion

15 A World Religion Early Christian Church
Hierarchy: organized in ranks in an order where the levels are subject to authority of levels above Local level: priests Bishops: supervise priests and local churches Peter was the 1st bishop “rock” on which to build the church Pope: father (head) of church, is the bishop of Rome = should be the leader of the entire church

16 A World Religion A Single Voice
As Christianity grew disagreements grew New Testament: official standard beliefs Added Hebrew bible, Christians call it the Old Testament 325 Constantine called a meeting in Nicaea, Anatolia = Nicene Creed or basic beliefs of the Church

17 A World Religion The Fathers of the Church
Augustine, bishop in Hippo, N. Africa People needed the grace of God to be saved Had to received Sacraments to belong to the Church and achieve grace (salvation) The City of God written after the fall of Rome, fate of Rome not important because God’s city could never be destroyed Meanwhile Rome was crumbling….

18 Christianity belief that Jesus is Messiah Acceptance of Gentiles and Jews alike BOTH Belief in one God 10 Commandments Jewish Belief that Jews are the chosen people Adherence to Jewish laws

19 What is Judaism First religion to teach the existence of one god
The Torah (5 books of Hebrew Bible) 3 sects of Judaism: (split happened in 19th c. over intepretation of the Torah) Reform: Tried to adapt to western world Orthodox: Follow dietary (kosher) laws and follow Torah literally Kosher Laws: “beast of earth” that chew cub and have cloven hooves Fish must have fins and scales All fruits and vegetables are kosher (excluding grapes) unless there is a bug on it Conservative: Tries to balance the Reform and the Orthodox Jews

20 What is Christianity? Belief that Jesus is the son of God
It is based on the life and teaching of Jesus Largest world religion - 2 billion followers Christianity can be broken into 3 groups: Roman Catholic Protestant (Lutheran, Episcopal, Mormon, Presbyterian, Methodist, and Baptist) Eastern Orthodox

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