Jesus of Nazareth Christianity is a religion bases on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
Messiah The Jewish people believed that the Messiah was a leader chosen by God. When the Romans took over Judea in 63 BC, many Jews thought the Messiah would soon appear.
John the Baptist Prophets wandered through Judea, announcing that the Messiah was coming. The most famous of these prophets was John the Baptist.
The Bible The Bible is the holy book of Christianity. It is made up of two parts. The first part is the Old Testament and is largely the same as the Hebrew bible. The second part is the New Testament, which is an account of the life and teachings of Jesus and of the early history of Christianity.
The Birth of Jesus According to the Bible, Jesus was born in s small town called Bethlehem at the end of the first century BC. Our dating system marks his birth, shifting from BC to AD, ano domini, the year of God
Jesus growing up As a young boy and man, Jesus lived in the town of Nazareth. His mother was Mary and his father was Joseph. The Christians believe God, not Joseph was Jesus’ father. He probably studied to be a carpenter like Joseph. Jesus was also Jewish, so he studied the teachings of Judaism.
Jesus the Teacher Around the age of 30, Jesus began to travel and teach. He drew many followers with his ideas. His teaching challenged the authority of political and religious leaders.
Jesus was arrested and tried According to the Bible, the Romans arrested Jesus while he was in Jerusalem, in around AD 30.
Crucifixion Shortly after he was tried, he was executed by crucifixion. Crucifixion is a type of execution in which a person is nailed to a cross. The word crucifixion comes from the word “cross”. After he died, his followers buried him.
The Resurrection According to Christian beliefs, Jesus rose from the dead and vanished from his tomb three days after he was crucified. The name, Jesus Christ comes from the Greek word for Messiah, “Christos”. It is from this word that the words “Christian” and “Christianity”, eventually developed.
Disciples Christians believe that after the Resurrection, Jesus appeared to his disciples, or followers. He stayed with them for 40 days, teaching and giving them instructions about how to pass on his teachings. Then Jesus rose up to heaven.
Parables are similar to fables, but they usually teach lessons about how to live your life. The New Testament includes many of Jesus’ parables. His parables were religious lessons about salvation, kindness and the love of God. The Good Samaritan
Apostles The Bible says, shortly after the Resurrection, Jesus’ disciples (followers) traveled throughout the Roman world telling about Jesus and his teachings. Jesus chose 12 of his close disciples to travel and teach about him. They were called the Apostles. They also wrote the New Testament Gospels.
Saint Paul A writer of some of the Gospels of the New Testament in the Christian Bible, who once was a Jewish lawyer and rabbi. Later converted to Christianity and became a disciple of Jesus, changing his name to Paul. He spread Jesus’ teachings all around the Roman Empire, even though he never knew Jesus personally.
Christian Martyrs At times Christians trying to spread their beliefs faced challenges from local Roman officials. Some of these officials arrested and even killed Christians who refused to worship Rome’s gods. A martyr is a person who would die for their religious beliefs.
Persecution Most of Rome’s emperors let Christians worship as they pleased. A few emperors in the 200s and 300s, feared that the Christians could cause unrest in the empire and banned Christianity. Persecution means punishing a group because of their beliefs
Bishops The early church had to meet in secret so they had no single leader to govern them. A bishop is a local Christian leader who helped people in the communities to understand the Christian teachings.
The Eucharist The Eucharist was the central ceremony of the Christian Church. It was created to honor the last supper that Jesus shared with the Apostles. During the Eucharist, Christians drank wine and ate bread in the memory of Jesus’ death.
The Pope Pope Benedict XVI The most honored of all the Empire’s bishops was the Bishop of Rome. The word pope comes from the Greek word “father”. Today, the Christian Catholic Church, is the only church to have a pope.
Augustine of Hippo Christian Philosopher Lived in a town in northern Africa, named Hippo in the late 300s and 400s. Also studied the works of Plato. Converted the Emperor Constantine to a Christian.
Constantine Constantine came to power in 306 after fighting and defeating many rivals. Saw a vision of a cross in the sky before winning a battle and converted to Christianity. Removed bans against the practice of Christianity
Theodosius I 60 years after Constantine died, Theodosius I, another emperor, banned all non-Christian religious practices in Rome. Called all Christian leaders together to clarify church teachings.