2 Why do people migrate? Push Factors: Disadvantageous (negative) factors in the home country (country of origin) that make people want to leave.Ex. Famine, unemployment, overcrowding, political turmoil, religious persecution, disease, crime
3 More Push Factors Not enough jobs Few opportunities "Primitive" conditions Political fearPoor medical care Not being able to practice religionLoss of wealth Natural DisastersDeath threats SlaveryPoor housing LandlordsBullying Poor chances of finding courtship
4 Why do people migrate? Pull Factors: advantageous (positive) factors in the drawing (destination) country that attract people.Better health and education, climate, jobs, escape…., political and religious freedom
5 More Pull Factors? Job opportunities Better living conditions Political freedom Religious freedomEnjoyment EducationBetter medical care SecurityFamily linksBetter chances of finding courtship
6 Why do people migrate? Repel Factors: Disadvantageous (negative) factors in the destination country (country of destination) that discourage people from going there.Ex. Crime, overcrowding, language barrier, no relatives/friends
7 Intervening Obstacles Why do people migrate?Intervening Obstacles:those forces that “stand in the way” and prevent or inhibit people from moving, their own situation!!!Ex. lack of money, criminal record, roots, distance to destination, dangerous, poor health, immigration laws.Intervening Obstacles
8 Why do people migrate? Positives (+) at the Origin: Positive Factors at the ORIGIN that may make them want to stay where they are and NOT move.Friends & Family connectionsCountry of birthFamiliarity with placeCultural background
9 The NFLD Case Newfoundland Push Factors (-) Some people might report that they are pushed out of Newfoundland and Labrador for the following reasons:lack of high-skilled jobs in the IT sector;lack of high-paying jobs;lack of amenities attainable in larger centers.
10 The NFLD CaseSome people might report that they were drawn or pulled (+) to Ontario or Alberta for the following reasons:Jobs, jobs, jobsChoices…in everything! Business etc.Expanded and better servicesEx. schools, health care, transportation, business, sanitation and infrastructure, etc.
11 The NFLD CaseSome people might report that they would leave Newfoundland and Labrador except for obstacles or + of home: Examples? Which type?they love the salt water;(+ Origin)parents are aging and need help & company;(Intervening Obstacle)they can not afford the trip away let alone the cost of setting up and trying to find a job.Culture and roots are here.
12 CensusThe process of gathering data, information or statistics about the population of a place.
13 Census Done every 5 – 10 years (Census 2011) Gives government data to use when making decisions where to spend money, programs to initiate, continue or discontinue.Ie. Daycares, seniors homes, schools, pension plans, employment initiatives, housing and immigration policies…to name a few.
14 What can or should be done to control population? Legislation by government could make it illegal to have more than a certain number of babies. Is that humane? How do we ensure the correct number. What is done with children over the limit?Could we provide less expensive birth control for developing nations?
15 What can or should be done to control population? Increasing education of the masses is correlated with decreased births. Could we help to provide education in developing nations? Is that humane?We know that education of women is correlated with decreased births. Is the education of women something we could promote?
16 What can or should be done to control population? Pension plans & RRSP's allow us to be secure into our old age and we do not have to worry about having children to take care of us. Is this something we could promote in under-developed nations?Some people have proposed that war and famine used to be our natural means of birth control. Clearly this is not an option.
17 What can or should be done to control population? Highly developed economies are associatedwith decreased birth rates. Q. Should we concentrate on supporting improvements to their economies as an ultimate route to controlling birth rates?
18 Positive Consequences of Migration Expanded labor force – more peopleSkills, knowledge, creativity, work ethic and expertise are enhanced.Start businesses and further employ locals.Remittances ($) back to lesser developed areas…help them out as well!Young people, prime of life, hard working, tax paying individuals. Many years of contributing and supporting others.Cultural enrichment, tolerance, multiculturalism…Do jobs that locals will not or can not do.
19 Negative Consequences Take jobs away from localsIf they are the poor, it adds to the # of poor already here and is more of a burden on the local people, economies etc. Who pays for this?May create inner-city slums, housing shortage or homelessness in destination areaCultural conflict with local identity… Ex. what is it to be Canadian?Possible increase in crime rates.Others??
20 Push and Pull Factors Push bad or oppressive laws heavy taxation unattractive climateuncongenial social surrounding (and the strength of social ties)compulsionjob losspolitical strife creating refugeesPullLabor marketsEducational opportunitiesRelative freedom from family obligationsMarriage opportunitiesHealth advantagesSocial networks, including family reunification
21 Assigned Readings"Reasons for Migration" on pages of your text book."Political and economic conditions in Afghanistan" on pages of your text book.Assigned ActivitiesComplete questions #5-7 from page 326 of your text book.