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Theories Of Migration IB SL.

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Presentation on theme: "Theories Of Migration IB SL."— Presentation transcript:

1 Theories Of Migration IB SL

2 Models Ravenstein’s Laws Of Migration Newton’s Gravity Model
Zelinsky’s Model Of Mobility Transition Clark’s Model Of Migration Decision Lee’s Intervening Obstacles Model Stouffer’s Law Of Intervening Opportunities

3 Activity 6 theories of migration are going to be discussed... Copy the following table and enter the Strengths and Weaknesses for each theory throughout the discussion of each:

4 Theories Of Migration Ravenstein Newton Zelinsky Clark Lee Stouffer A

5 Ravenstein’s Laws Of Migration
Every migration flow generates a return or countermigration. The majority of migrants move a short distance. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations Urban residents are often less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults. Other Influences Include: Migration stage by stage Migration and Technology Economic condition

6 Ravenstein Most migrants travel short distances and their numbers decrease as distance increases

7 Newton "Any two bodies attract one another with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.“ When used geographically, the words 'bodies' and 'masses' are replaced by 'locations' and 'importance' respectively, where importance can be measured in terms of population numbers, gross domestic product, or another appropriate variables. The gravity model of migration is therefore based upon the idea that as the importance of one or both of the location increases, there will also be an increase in movement between them. The farther apart the two locations are, however, the movement between them will be less.

8 Zelinsky Stage 1 of the DTM: Pre industrialized economies Economies that have not yet developed are made up of rural countries and subsistence farmers. There will only be Rural – Urban migration between the settlements, if at all, as there are few urban areas. Industrializing countries As countries start to industrialize (UK in the 18th & 19th century) there is increased migration from the countryside to the cities where there were better wages and an increase in the standards of living. Stage 4 of the DTM: Post industrial economies Advanced countries that rely on tertiary industry more than secondary industry show an increase in Urban – Rural migration. Technological and transport movement improvements mean that people do not have to live close to where they work. Inter-urbanization occurs as people move to the suburbs

9 Internal Vs External Forces + Stress
Clark Internal Vs External Forces + Stress

10 Lee Push Pull Job opportunities Better living conditions
Not enough jobs Few opportunities Primitive conditions Desertification Famine or drought Political fear or persecution Poor medical care Loss of wealth Natural disasters Death threats Lack of political or religious freedom Pollution Poor housing Landlord/tenant issues Bullying Discrimination Poor chances of marrying Job opportunities Better living conditions Political and/or religious freedom Enjoyment Education Better medical care Attractive climates Security Family links Industry Better chances of marrying

11 Lee’s Theory of Migration Reasons for Movement

12 Is It This Simple Though?
Lee’s Theory of Migration The decision of groups or households to move is an important factor Migration is not just ‘outside forces and pull/push factors but a deep conscious decision that individuals make

13 Intervening Obstacles
Lee pointed out that the migration process is selective because differentials such as age, gender, and social class affect how persons respond to push-pull factors These conditions also shape their ability to overcome intervening obstacles. Furthermore, personal factors such as a person's education, knowledge of a potential receiver population, family ties, and the like can facilitate or retard migration



16 Stouffer The number of persons going a given distance is directly proportional to the number of opportunities at that distance and inversely proportional to the number of intervening opportunities.“ Stouffer theorises that the amount of migration over a given distance is directly proportional to the number of opportunities at the place of destination, and inversely proportional to the number of opportunities between the place of departure and the place of destination. These intervening opportunities may persuade a migrant to settle in a place in the route rather than proceeding to the originally planned destination. Stouffer argued that the volume of migration had less to do with distance and population totals than with the opportunities in each location

17 Using The Models Of Migration W/S...
See if you can add any more Advantages/ Disadvantages of each theory. Which theory would you choose to best represent you if you were in a decision to migrate (give reasons). Which theory do you feel has most problems (why)?

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