Linking your Writing Together Writing & Structure 4 Fall 2007.
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Linking your Writing Together Writing & Structure 4 Fall 2007
Types of Connectors Coordinating conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions Transition/Connecting words
Coordinating Conjunctions Join two equal items: verbs, nouns, adjective, independent clauses FANBOYS For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yes, So Examples: I will sew this weekend and go to the Renaissance Festival. You cannot leave early, nor can you arrive late. He worked very hard, so he got an A on the test. Your turn!
Subordinating Conjunctions Connect idea within sentences Introduce dependent clauses Show the relationship between an idea in a dependent clause and an idea in an independent clause
Common Subordinating Conjunctions Time : after, before, once, since, until, when, whenever, while Reason : as, because, since Result : in order that, so that, that Contrast : although, even though, though, whereas, while Condition : if, even if, provided that, unless, only if, etc. Location : where, wherever
Let’s use them! You may go home after you finish the test. As Kevin studied, he got a good grade. Whereas all men are created equal, they do not always receive equal treatment. Although Kevin studied, he got a bad grade. Your turn!
Adverbial Conjunctions Show relationship Carry an idea from one sentence to the next Pull a paragraph together Help ideas flow smoothly and logically IMPROVE YOUR WRITING (So use them!)
Transitions of Addition Like ‘and’ Also, in addition, furthermore, moreover Rebekah is from Korea. Also, Seonok is from Korea. Last weekend I corrected 16 essays; in addition, I wrote two tests. You must revise your essay. Furthermore, you must do all the exercises. Your turn!
Transitions of Contrast Like ‘but’ However, nevertheless, even so, in contrast, on the other hand Notice the position in the sentence. Veronica is a good student. Her brother, however, is not o r However, her brother is not. Your turn!
Transitions of Cause & Effect Like ‘so’ Therefore, consequently, as a result, for this (that) reason I am so tired today. As a result, we may leave early. (Don’t count on it!) Your turn!
Transitions of Example For example, for instance, as an example Shirley is very smart. As an example, she got 100% on the last test. Your turn!
Transitions of Similarity Similarly, likewise, in the same way, in the same manner Learning to play the piano requires hours of practice. In the same way, learning a new language cannot be accomplished without practice. Your turn!
Explanation or Definition The same information in different words In other words, that is You did not do well on the last test; in other words, you need to study more. Your turn!
Transition of Condition Like ‘if’ and ‘or’ Otherwise You’d better hurry; otherwise, you’ll be late. If you don’t hurry, you’ll be late. You’d better hurry, or you will be late. Your turn!
Time Relationships Next, finally, then Notice the punctuation: Next, you must write an outline. Then you must write an outline. Finally, you must proof your essay.
Transitions of Degree Shows ‘how much’ Mostly, for the most part, to some extent, to a large extent To a large extent, you answers are correct. To some extent, what you say is possible. Your turn!
Conclusion or Summary Used at end of a piece of writing In short, in summary, in conclusion
Why use connectors? Make it easier for reader to follow your thoughts Add sophistication to your writing Link your writing together Get a better grade!