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Foundations of Writing

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Presentation on theme: "Foundations of Writing"— Presentation transcript:

1 Foundations of Writing
Compiled and Written by Anita J. Ghajar-Selim

2 Some Difficult Terms Fragment Comma Splice Run-on Sentence
Independent/dependent clause Coordinating Conjunction (FANBOYS) Subordinating Conjunction Clause vs. Phrase Transition Words and Types Punctuation of transition words Cohesion vs. Coherence

3 Fragment A fragment is an incomplete sentence. It doesn’t have an independent clause. Example 1: Then I saw how good the class was. Example 2: When people believe in something. Click here for practice Q

4 Comma Splice Joining two sentences ONLY with a comma and no coordinating conjunction is called comma splice. Example: Incorrect: I was tired, I wanted to watch my favorite movie. Correct: I was tired, but I wanted to watch my favorite movie. Before doing this exercise, finish the next slide on Run-on Sentence please. Q

5 Run-on (Fused) Sentence
Fused (Run-on) sentences happen when there are two independent clauses not separated by any punctuation. You can fix this problem by adding a period, semicolon, or comma and FANBOYS to separate the two sentences. S V S V Incorrect: My friend is very knowledgeable I've learned a lot from her. Correct: My friend is knowledgeable. I've learned a lot from her. or My friend is knowledgeable; I've learned a lot from her. My friend is knowledgeable, and I've learned a lot from her. Click here for practice Q

6 Independent/Dependent Clause
An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a sentence. Example: Aisha studied hard for her IELTS exam. A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. A dependent clause is often marked by a dependent marker word. Example: Because Aisha studied hard for her IELTS exam . . . Q

7 Coordinating Conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, and clauses. Coordinating conjunctions talk about the things which are equally important unlike subordinating conjunctions. In order to remember them you can memorize them as FANBOYS. To punctuate FANBOYS, you should put a comma before them ONLY if they join two independent clauses (the sentences before and after them have subject and verb). If one of the sentences doesn’t have subject and verb, don’t put any commas. Example 1: I was sick, and I had to prepare for an exam. Example 2: I was sick and had to prepare for an exam. F = for I like my level 4 grammar, for it is much easier than level 3. A= and He studies at Qatar University, and he works for QNB. N= nor My son refuses to eat meat, nor does he show any interest in chicken. B = but Her dad is Qatari, but her mom is from Oman. O= or We can eat at home, or we can pick up something from the drive through. Y = yet Our plane is leaving in an hour, yet my brother is still in the shower. S = so Maryam was sick, so she went to the doctor. Click here for practice Q

8 Subordinating conjunction
To subordinate means to introduce something which is less important. Subordinating Conjunctions introduce the dependent clause (the less important information) and join it with the independent clause. They also introduce an adverb clause. Here is a list of the most common ones. IMPORTANT! To punctuate the Subordinating Conjunctions, you should put a comma ONLY when they are used in the beginning of a sentence as an introductory phrase. If they come in the middle of the sentence, you won’t need any punctuation for them. after although as as soon as because before by the time even if even though every time if in case in the event that just in case now that once only if since the first time though unless until when  whenever whereas whether or not while Click here for practice Q

9 Clause vs. Phrase Clause: A clause is a pair of words put together which has a subject and a verb: I am hungry. Phrase: Some words put together without a verb. For example, an expression: as light as a feather. Click here for practice Q

10 Q Commas Between independent clauses separated by FANBOYS
She was tired, unhappy, and sick. After introductory clauses, phrases, and words. To write a good essay, you need to have a good outline. Separate coordinate adjectives. Omar is a cute, happy baby. DON’T use commas to separate non-coordinate adjectives. Incorrect: We live in a big, wooden house. Correct: We live in a big wooden house. How do we know if the adjectives are coordinate or non-coordinate? When you see the adjectives, see if they sound correct 1- when you switch them. 2- when you put “and” between them. For example, you can’t say We live in a wooden big house or We live in a big and wooden house. But you can say Omar is a cute and happy baby or Omar is a happy, cute baby. CAREFUL! Question? Click here for practice Q

11 Transition Words and Types
Transition words are like glue. They hold your thoughts and ideas together in a sentence. They have different types. Example Add information Cause Effect Compare/contrast

12 Example For example To illustrate
For instance Ahmed can play a lot of sports, for instance, basketball, soccer, and volleyball.

13 Add Information Besides In addition Moreover Second, third, etc.
Furthermore The President is young and ambitious Furthermore, he is full of new ideas.

14 Cause As Because of Due to For Since
Because Because we had not booked ahead of time, we could not find any tickets.

15 Effect Consequently So Thus Hence
Therefore We were late for the movie; therefore, we didn’t understand anything.

16 Q Compare/Contrast Although However In comparison In contrast Likewise
Similarly Nevertheless Whereas Dogs like to chase cats; whereas, cats like to chase mice. Click here for practice Q

17 Punctuation of Transition Words
Follow this formula to punctuate transition words: [Transition Word], Subject +Verb Example: After all, I could not be disrespectful to my teacher. Subject + Verb; [Transition Word], Subject +Verb Example: I couldn’t be disrespectful to her; after all, she was my teacher.

18 Cohesion vs. Coherence When you write an essay, it should be both cohesive and coherent. An essay is cohesive if the parts in it are linked together. An essay is coherent if it makes sense. Sometimes, your essay may be cohesive but not coherent. Read the following example: Example: I am a doctor. A doctor works in a hospital. A hospital is a place where patients go. A patient is a person who is sick. Sick is an adjective. (This paragraph makes no sense although the words and parts in it are connected together.)

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