Presentation on theme: "Phrases, Clauses, Conjunctions And Related Punctuation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Phrases, Clauses, Conjunctions And Related Punctuation Sentence StructurePhrases, Clauses, ConjunctionsAnd Related Punctuation
2 PhraseA group of words with no self-contained, independent meaning.
3 Types of phrases Modifying (describing) Prepositional (spatial or time)Verbal (infinitive, participle, gerund)
4 ClausesAll clauses have at least a subject and verb.
5 Sentence A sentence is a complete thought. It consists of a subject and predicate.The predicate is the verb and everything that follows it.A sentence is also an independent clause.
6 ?How can a dependent clause have a subject and verb yet not express a complete thought?
7 Two Types of ClausesIndependent Clauses can stand alone as complete thoughts.Dependent Clauses cannot stand alone, and they depend on another word group (an independent clause) to complete meaning.
8 Subordinators Two groups of words cause dependence or subordination: Subordinating ConjunctionsRelative Pronouns
9 ExamplesExamples of SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS & the meanings they express:Time: when, sinceReason: because, since, asResult: that, so thatCondition: if, unlessContrast: although, whereasLocation: where, whereverChoice: whether, thanSUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS CREATE DEPENDENT CLAUSES.See your text for a complete list of SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.
10 “BISAWAWE” is a memory tool for a few subordinating conjunctions BecauseIfSo thatAfterWhenAlthoughWhileEven though
11 More subordinatorsAnother group of words that create dependent or subordinating clauses is called RELATIVE PRONOUNS.They are:Who, which, that, whom, whoever
12 Examples If the bond issue passes, the city will install new sewers. In the above sentence, the underlined clause is dependent or subordinate.The bold clause is the independent clause which could stand alone:The city will install new sewers.
13 Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions connect “equal” or independent clauses with a comma preceding the conjunction.
15 Examples of Coordinating Conjunctions Connecting Independent Clauses The sky turned gray, and it rained.Two independent Clauses:The sky turned gray.It rained.I left early, yet I was late for class.I left early.I was late for class.
16 Addition: also, furthermore, moreover, besides Conjunctive Adverbs (Several are also known as transition-words) and the Relationships They ExpressAddition: also, furthermore, moreover, besidesContrast: however, still, nevertheless, conversely, nevertheless, instead, otherwiseComparison: similarly, likewiseResult or Summary: therefore, thus, consequently, accordingly, hence, thenTime: next, then, meanwhile, finally, subsequently, indeed, certainly
17 Examples— I am overweight; therefore, I should exercise more. THE PATTERN: Independent Clause/Semicolon/Conjunctive Adverb/Comma/Independent ClauseExamples—I am overweight; therefore, I should exercise more.I enjoy swimming; however, I don’t get to swim often.
18 FOR MORE STUDYSentence Structure & Punctuation Phrases Clauses Independent clauses Dependent Clauses Comma Splices Fragments Semicolons & Colons Run-On, Comma Splice, Fragment Self-check Quiz
19 For More StudyCommas & Sentence Structure Trying to place commas by noting pauses is very dangerous!The reason it's dangerous is that often people do not know correct sentence structure, so they pause in the wrong place! To understand comma use, you need to understand independent clauses, dependent clauses, subordinating conjunctions, and coordinating conjunctions. Note the links below Clauses Sentence Structure Exercises
20 ReminderRemember to document your Study Journal to show what you have studied!
21 In ClosingI hope you enjoyed your journey down the adventurous yellow-brick-road to the wonderful world of grammar!