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The Elements of Music Chapters 1 - 9.

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Presentation on theme: "The Elements of Music Chapters 1 - 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Elements of Music Chapters 1 - 9

2 Sound: Pitch, Dynamics, and Tone Color
Pitch- The high or low quality of sound Dynamics- The loud or soft quality of music Tone color- Also known as timbre, refers to the unique quality of sound

3 Dynamics Forte--f,ff,fff-loud Piano--p,pp,ppp-very soft
Mezzo---mf,mp--medium Crescendo--gradually louder Decrescendo,diminuendo--gradually softer

4 Voices Women’s Voices Men’s Voices Soprano Mezzo-soprano Alto Tenor
Baritone Bass

5 Orchestral Instruments: Strings pictures on p. 13-14
Violin- highest pitched of string family Viola- medium pitched, takes role of supporting actor Cello- larger and lower pitched than viola, held between knees Bass- largest and lowest pitched of string family, played while standing Harp-47 strings and 7 foot pedals

6 Orchestral Instruments: Woodwinds pictures on p. 17-19
Piccolo- highest pitched Flute- blown across tone hole Oboe- highest pitched of double reeds

7 Orchestral Instruments: Woodwinds
English horn- low oboe sound Clarinet- single reed Bassoon- lowest pitched of the double reed instruments, aka “clown” of the orchestra. Produces deep, nasal tone Saxophone- made of brass, single reed

8 Orchestral Instruments: Brass pictured on page 21
Trumpet- highest pitched of the brass family French horn-not as bright as a trumpet, consists of coiled tubing and is often used for hunting calls Trombone- incorporates a movable slide to change pitches Tuba- the lowest pitched of the brass instruments

9 Orchestral Instruments: percussion pictured on pp. 22-23
Pitched percussion instruments Timpani: large kettle drums Glockenspiel: metal bars hit struck with mallets Xylophone: wooden bars struck with mallets, producing a dry brittle sound Celesta: small upright piano that sounds like a glockenspiel Chimes: a set of metal tubes hung from a frame which are struck by a hammer

10 Orchestral Instruments: Percussion pictured on pp. 23-24
Unpitched percussion instruments Bass drum Snare drum Cymbals Gong Triangle Tambourine

11 Orchestral Instruments: Keyboards Pictured on pp. 26-27
Piano: keys activate hammers that hit strings Harpsichord: keys activate plectra which pluck the strings Pipe organ: keys control valves that channel air through various pipes

12 Rhythm The flow of music through time; the pattern of durations of notes and silences in music
Beat - the pulse of music Meter- the grouping of beats Tempo - the speed of the beat (pg. 34) Accent - a pitch that is played more loudly, held longer or is higher in pitch than the nearby notes Syncopation- When an accented note comes where we would normally not expect it

13 Tempo Markings

14 Tempo Markings Molto-much Non troppo-not too much (fast or slow)
Accelerando- gradually faster Ritardando- gradually slower

15 Music Notation Notating pitch
Staff: the five lines and four spaces on which music is written Note: an oval which represents a specific pitch Clef: placed at the beginning of the staff, the clef assigns pitch names to the lines and spaces (pg. 36)

16 Music Notation (cont.) Notating Rhythm
Durations: the color of the note and the presence of stems or flags and beams and dots affect the duration of a note (pg. 37) Rests:symbols for pauses with specific durations (pg. 36)

17 Music Notation (cont.) Notating meter
Time signature: placed next to the clef, the top number of the time signature indicates the grouping of beats and the bottom number indicates what kind of note will receive one beat.

18 Melody A succession of pitches which add up to a recognizable whole
Intervals: the distance between two pitches Sequence: the repetition of a melodic pattern at a higher or lower pitch Cadence: a resting spot

19 Harmony the vertical aspect of music
Chord: a combination of three or more notes sounded simultaneously Consonance: harmony that is stable and restful to the ear Dissonance:tense and unstable harmony that demands onward motion to stable harmony (resolution)

20 Key - Tonality the homing instinct of music
Major scale: a succession of eight pitches arranged from low to high, based on the intervals of the white keys of a piano (pg. 46) Minor scale: a succession of eight pitches arranged from low to high, based on a specific pattern of whole and half steps which results in a dark quality of melody and harmony

21 Key-Tonality (cont.) Chromatic scale: a series of 12 pitches based on the black and white keys of the piano Modulation: the shifting from one key to another

22 Texture layers of sound
Monophonic: a single unaccompanied melody line Polyphonic: two or more independent melody lines happening simultaneously Homophonic: melody plus accompaniment

23 Musical Form the shape, structure and organization of music
Binary form: AB Ternary form: ABA Rondo: ABACAD… Theme and Variations:A A’ A’’ A’’’ A’’’’… Ballad form: AABA Strophic:stanzas or verses Call and response

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